The literature review section of every academic scholarship reviews existing literature to acquaint readers with the available existing works/knowledge in the subject area (Abdulai & Owusu-Ansah, 2014). Therefore, this section of the research makes references to related researches and other important articles in the field of waste management to provide the focus and identify the gaps and context within which this study would be situated. It deals with issues related to the study which includes Concepts of waste management and impacts of waste management activities in developing countries; causes of waste problems in developing countries, Public-Private-Participation and challenges
Module: Urban Environmental Planning and Management in Development
Improved sanitation in terms of availability of hygienic toilet facilities is essential and a basic necessity of every human society. Various studies conducted in Ghana show that the general sanitation situation is not the best. Further, it is not uncommon in Ghana seeing people defecating in public places, all because of inadequate hygienic toilet facilities. Each year government of Ghana spends large sums of resources in managing waste (both solid and liquid) in Ghana. In recent years there has been out-break of cholera and other communicable diseases as a result of improper waste management techniques, including indiscriminate defecation and dumping of liquid waste. Government also spends large sums of resources or budgets on treatment of malaria by procuring malaria drugs and also investing in malaria treatment procedures and education of people on environmental cleanliness. Some of these toilet facilities have been in dilapidated state making them inaccessible. It is essential to carry out this study to ascertain the demand for improved institutional public toilet facilities by determining households’ willingness-to-pay for these improved toilet facilities. This study would provide the needed impetus for public-private investment in providing quality institutional public toilet facilities in Ghana. Finally, conclusions and recommendations will be drawn from the results of the study, in order to help in the current efforts in the provision of hygienic toilet facilities in Ghana and elsewhere. This study applies Contingent Valuation approach in determining households` willingness-to-pay for hygienic toilet facilities.
Definitions, Theories, and Styles of Leadership in Nursing
Developing future nurse leaders is one of the greatest challenges faced by the nursing profession (Mahoney, 2001). Powerful leadership skills are needed by all nurses and especially for those providing direct care to those in top management positions. Anyone who is looked to as an authority (including, for instance, a nurse treating a patient) or who is responsible for giving assistance to others is considered a leader (Curtis, DeVries and Sheerin, 2011). A clinical nursing leader is one who is involved in direct patient care and who continuously improves the care that is afforded to such persons by influencing the treatment provision delivered by others (Cook, 2001). Leadership is not merely a series of skills or tasks; rather, it is an attitude that informs behaviour (Cook, 2001). In addition, good leadership can be seen as demonstrating consistently superior performance; further it delivers long term benefits to all those involved, either in the delivery or receipt of care. Leaders are not merely those who control others; they are visionaries who help employees to plan, lead, control, and organise their activities (Jooste, 2004).
Adults play an important role in extending and enhancing childrens learning. Research has shown that adult involvement, from both parents and teachers, is a key factor in improving children’s academic attainment as well as their behaviour towards learning (Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003). The parents are the prime educators for a child until they reach the early years setting where teachers then begin to take on the main role of teaching. It is clear from research that both teachers and parents have important roles to play in the education of a child (Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003 and Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2008).
A Critical Analysis of Leadership
The first quality of a good leader is that he has passion for the craft and challenges me to be the best that I can be at whatever I am going to do. If things are made easy or handed to you, you won’t work as hard to accomplish it. You are already aware of the outcome and it is always in your favor. A good leader challenges your highest level of your ability and always expects the best from you. He wants you to put your best foot forward and rewards you when you have done your best. A good leader always sets a good example because he leads by example. If your leader is unprepared, unmotivated, has no confidence and has lost his passion then you will be the same way. Your leader always needs to be #1 because he wants the same determination from you. A good leader finds ways to keep his team motivated and you will always benefit from his experience.
This essay will analyses leadership and how it impacts on organisational culture and the effects on nursing staff, this paper will show the difference between leadership and management, consider the impact and influence of organisational culture on patients and their outcomes, this essay will explore the theories of leadership and show the elements required to have an effective sustainable culture for better patient outcomes.
Leadership is a trend of a crew and interactive it to people, encouraging, motivating and permitting them to underwrite to accomplishing organisational victory. The leadership requires being strategically focused and his performance practices to build obligation and achieve the best effort from your people.
Leadership is process of persuading others to work toward achieving the common desired outcomes (Whitehead, Weiss and Tappen, 2007). In healthcare settings, leadership and quality of care are interlinked. Nursing leadership plays vital role in organisational success as it is client oriented. It facilitates and ensures the delivery of best possible care to the clients (Zori & Morrison, 2009) There are certain leadership characteristics that determine the effectiveness of a nurse leader. This essay critically discusses these attributes and also discusses the significance of these characteristics in context of nursing leadership. Furthermore, it briefly explains the effect of change and use of power in nursing to accommodate the change.
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