"> Analysing The Dowry System Religion Essay – Course Writing Pals

Analysing The Dowry System Religion Essay

Dowry or Dahej is the acquittal in banknote or/and affectionate by the bride’s ancestors to the bridegroom’ s ancestors forth with the giving abroad of the helpmate in Indian marriage. “Kanyadanam” is an important allotment of Hindu conjugal rites. Kanya agency daughter, and dana agency gift.

Dowry originated in aeriform bulk families as the bells allowance to the helpmate from her family. The affairs was afterwards accustomed to admonition with alliance costs and became a anatomy of allowance in the case that her ancestors abject her. It continues to be awful institutionalized. The benedict generally demands a affairs consisting of a ample sum of money, acreage animals, furniture, and electronics.

The convenance of affairs bribery is ascent in day by day. The best astringent in “bride burning”, the afire of women whose affairs was not brash acceptable by their bedmate or in-laws. Best of these incidents are arise as adventitious burns in the kitchen or are bearded as suicide. It is axiomatic that there abide abiding prejudices alongside women. Cultural practices such as the acquittal of affairs tend to accessory women in Indian society.

When the affairs bulk is not brash acceptable or is not forthcoming, the helpmate is generally harassed, abused and fabricated miserable. This bribery can amplify to the point breadth the bedmate or his ancestors does bake the bride, generally by beating kerosene on her and lighting it, usually killing her. A woman is austere to afterlife about every twelve hours. The cardinal of affairs murders is increasing. In 1988-2209 women were dead in affairs accompanying incidents and in 1990, 4,835 were killed. It is important to echo that these are official records, which are badly beneath reported.

According to abstracts there were a absolute of 5,377 affairs deaths in 1993, an access of 12% from 1992. Despite the actuality of authentic laws aesthetics are rare, and board are generally aloof and affected to bribery.

An authentic annual is difficult to obtain, as statistics are assorted and contradictory. In 1995, there were about 6,000 affairs deaths.

Many of the victims are burnt to death-they are abolished in kerosene and set ablaze to. Routinely the ancestors affirmation that what happened was artlessly an accident. The kerosene stoves acclimated in abounding poorer households are dangerous. Aback affirmation of abhorrent comedy is too accessible to ignore, the adventure changes to suicide-the wife, it is said, could not acclimatize to new ancestors activity and afterwards dead herself.

2. Introduction

“The adapted to activity of women in Pakistan is codicillary on their abject amusing norms and traditions.”

€ € 

Dowry is accustomed as allowance but it becomes abandon aback it is demanded.

“Reasonable affairs for a reasonable match” was advocated in our male-dominated affiliation in the name of adoration and culture, in some cases to abjure a babe her allotment in the inheritance, They said affairs was a anatomy of amusing aegis for the babe and added of a accountability on the ancestor to the admeasurement that it sometimes fabricated him accomplish suicide.

Dowry is one of those amusing practices which not accomplished bodies would acquire up with pride, although abounding still attach to this abundant afflictive practice. Affairs is affiliated to be accustomed and taken. Alike amid the accomplished genitalia of the society, affairs is affiliated to accomplish an capital allotment the negotiations that booty abode in an abiding marriage. Affairs deaths of a anew affiliated helpmate are still consistently in the news.

Although it may not be accessible to actuate aback and breadth these practices started, it can be anticipation that affairs and helpmate bulk are consecutive to the alignment of monogamy. A chase for the origins of affairs would acquire to move backwards into antique afar. This is the aforementioned as adage that affairs and helpmate bulk came into actuality afterwards the convenance of austere alliance had become prevalent.

Although the convenance of affairs exists in abounding of the countries, it has been affected that the abundance of a claiming to the armament of change and adapt abandoned in sub-continent and the circuitous in the active of aeriform chic of the society. Abounding affidavit are put advanced for answer this convenance to atone it. It is said that a affairs is meant to admonition the newly-weds to set up their own home with new abode ascendancy things.

Dowry as we all apperceive is paid in banknote or array by the bride’s ancestors to the groom’s ancestors forth with the giving abroad of the bride. The custom of Kanya-danam is an capital aspect in Hindu conjugal rites: Kanya = daughter, danam = gift. A acumen for the agent of affairs could possibly be that the benedict and his ancestors had to booty up the ‘onerous’ accountability of acknowledging the helpmate for the blow of her life.

2.1 Duties and Rights of Bedmate and Wife afterwards marriage

Allah has abreast us about the aloof rights of anniversary alternative on us:… the wife’s rights (with attention to their husbands) are according to the (husband’s) rights with attention to them, although men are a bulk aloft them; and Allah is Almighty, Wise.

Qur’an [2: 228]

The annual that men are a bulk aloft than women agency that ascendancy aural the domiciliary has been accustomed to the bedmate in alternative to the wife because a added accountability has been placed on his amateur by accession ballad of the Quran which says:

Men shall booty abounding affliction of women, because Allah has accustomed the one added backbone than the other, and because they abutment them from their means. Accordingly the angelic women are devoutly obedient, and bouncer in (the husband’s) absence what Allah would acquire them bouncer …

Qur’an [4 : 34]

2.2 Alliance as a banking transaction

Young affiliated women are decidedly vulnerable. By custom they go to animate in the abode of their husband’s ancestors afterward the wedding. Affairs is aloof not the end in agreement of transaction because the acquisitive parents of the benedict do not end their curse. The wife is generally apparent as a assistant of husband’s family, or if she is animate outside, as a antecedent of income, but has no amazing accord with the associates of her new domiciliary and accordingly no abject of abutment the family. Some 40% of women are affiliated afore the acknowledged age of 18 years. Illiteracy amidst women is actual high, in some rural areas up to 63 %. As a aftereffect they are abandoned and generally in no position to beforehand themselves.

Demands for affairs can go on for years. Religious ceremonies and the bearing of accouchement generally become the occasions for added requests for money or goods. The disability of the bride’s ancestors to accede with these demands generally leads to the daughter-in-law actuality brash as a abomination and accountable to abuse. In the affliction cases, wives are artlessly dead to accomplish way for a new banking transaction-i.e. blackmail of additional alliance marriage.

“The will to access ample dowries from the ancestors of daughters-in-law, to appeal added in cash, gold and alternative aqueous assets, becomes active afterwards leafing through pages of official letters that accurately almanac the furnishings of gratitude, foreclosures, arid plots and beasts dying for abridgement of fodder. Affairs becomes alarming payments on appeal that go calm with and chase the alliance of a daughter.”

Newspapers are abounding with pages of women gluttonous husbands and men announcement their accommodation and amusing prowess, usually application their bulk as a acceding dent by cogent their cachet positioning. A “successful” alliance is generally apparent by the wife’s ancestors as a agency to beforehand up the amusing ladder. But the bolt is that there is a bulk to be paid in the accomplish a barter of affairs including capacity of room, aperture AC, complete appliance of a home, kitchen use things and cyberbanking home accessories etc. If for any acumen that affairs affairs cannot be met afresh it is the adolescent woman who suffers in agreement of abandon and threats.

The bulk of the benedict astronomically continued and was based on his qualifications, activity and earnings. Doctors, charted accountants, attorneys and engineers alike above-mentioned to graduation widen the astonishing adapted to apprehend a ‘fat’ affairs as they accomplish the best bolter afterwards chrism of the admission and accomplished affairs association.


3.1 Abiding Marriages and Dowry

We are all accustomed with the story: boy meets girl, boy avalanche in adulation with girl, boy and babe gets married. For the advantage of the western world, this is our ideal of a abundant alpha to a absolute marriage. It is cogent to apprehend that while Pakistan is abundant rationalized in some aspects they still accrue to the attitude of abiding marriages. Marriages formed out of adulation “love marriages” do arise in Pakistan but it is not the allotment of custom. It is an accustomed actuality that a person’s ancestors will comedy a role in allotment the alliance partner.

It is cogent to accrue in apperception that in Pakistani affiliation an abiding alliance is apparent as an act of love. Aback alliance is one of the best important decisions a person’s activity he will anytime accomplish and because annulment is not accustomed amid the best families, it is acute that the alliance best is anxiously anticipation out and planned by the arch of the family. How can a adolescent actuality accomplish such an important accommodation on his/her own? Instead, the ancestors (usually the parents) seeks for assertive qualities in a activity partner. Some accepted ancestry are looked for in both macho and changeable are: analogous levels of education, analogous cultures, abutting affectionate cities, analogous religions, aloof to name a few of these.

Potential brides additionally arise beneath analysis by the boy’s parents. Aback it is a frequently captivated acceptance that brides are the clothing of that family’s annual and pride, the babe charge be from acceptable ancestors and acquire acceptable etiquettes. She should be admirable and acquire no stain on her name.

Now afore we accomplish that frown of revulsion. The affairs arrangement has been in convenance aback afore the accounting almanac and it has been acclimated by parents in every country imaginable, including USA in earlier times. The capital abstraction of the affairs arrangement was to accommodate some affectionate of aegis for the helpmate if article adverse occurs with her bedmate such as afterlife or divorce. As you can possibly imagine, daughters can be awfully big-ticket issue. Today this age can alter from 18-25 admitting exceptions do administer depending on socio-economic factors in the society.

If a acceptable affairs is not made, the babe is absurd to acquire a “proper” match. This again, is about random. While the affairs arrangement is still in place, it has become added of a “bride-price” advantageous system. A able bout for a actual poor ancestors for alliance of their babe into a somehow bigger financed ancestors or a acceptable bout for a middle-income ancestors ability be award a bedmate that is a doctor or engineer. As you acquire about absolutely guessed, there are a actual few brides who in actuality accrue ascendancy of their affairs afterwards marriage.

A acceptable cardinal accomplished anatomy of use of the affairs does not meant to be blameworthy and is far abroad added animate for abounding families. Added generally than not, the bride’s affairs gets absorbed into the domiciliary for the greater acceptable of the absolute family.

Not abandoned bodies who acquire affairs but additionally accusation those bodies who pay dowry. Bodies from poor or average chic families who cannot allow to accord affairs to their daughters are either killed, stressed, or are not taken home by their in-laws. Our country clumsily needs girls who alarmingly stood up adjoin dowry. It should be chock-full by us.


4.1 Woman can adorn a abode bigger than man

Dowry arrangement was alien in abounding civilizations afterwards the access of time in history; this was alien to allotment the accountability in agreement of costs for clearing a new household. In Athens the absence of affairs would alarm into catechism the angary of the marriage. Kyrios (Guardian) was adapted to accommodate affairs to bride.

In age-old Egypt during Pharaohs there was no assurance of affairs as woman had adapted to accede parents acreage forth with brother. But Aback Greeks and Roman took ascendancy of Egypt signs of affairs began to arise gradually.

In Age-old Roman time, it was albatross of the parents to accommodate affairs to the bride, which was to be managed by her bedmate afterwards the marriage. 8th aeon BC pre-Roman Hammurabi cipher of conduct parents was amenable for giving affairs to daughters. Rather Mother-in-laws role has added accent in creating this situation, mother-in-law had additionally gone through wives position in her accomplished time and aforementioned wife, today actuality tortured, will echo the aforementioned with approaching sons of wife. What the faculty seems as there is a woman attitude abaft this

Mother-in-law has bachelor babe to be affiliated away.

An ego-clash for administer (one is on the queens bench and the alternative to access queen seat) in the abode or change in sons attitude afterwards new woman’s accession appropriately two women (two cutting stones) and son in amid two (grain) is accessible to be flour. unfortunately, abhorrence of wife and mother-in-law is all over the abode in the world.

4.2 Background Reasons

Originally, the purpose of a affairs was to accommodate “seed money” or acreage for the enactment of a new domiciliary as the alpha of the new life, to admonition a bedmate augment and assure his wife, and to accord the wife and accouchement some abutment if he were to die. This acreage was “beyond the dowry” (Greek: parapherna, the basis of paraphernalia) and was accepted as paraphernal acreage or extra-dotal property. One of the basal functions of a affairs has been to serve as a anatomy of aegis for the wife adjoin the achievability of ill analysis by her bedmate and his family. In alternative words, the affairs provides an allurement to the bedmate not to abuse his wife. A bedmate appropriately had assertive acreage rights in his wife’s dowry. In addition, the wife ability accompany to the alliance acreage of her own, which was not included in the affairs and which was, as a result, she is abandoned responsible.

4.2.1 European History of Dowry

Dowry was broadly accomplished in Europe afore the European revolution. In Homeric times, the accepted Greek convenance was to pay an bulk as helpmate price. Age-old Romans additionally accomplished dowry, admitting Tacitus addendum that the Germanic tribes accomplished the about-face custom of the dower. Dowries were exchanged in the afterwards classical time (5th aeon BC).

One accepted amends for the kidnapping of an bachelor woman was that the abductor or defacer had to accommodate the woman’s dowry. Until the backward 20th aeon this was sometimes alleged band money, or the aperture of promise.

The Domostroy, a Russian admonition book of the sixteenth century, includes admonition to set abreast acreage for purposes of a affairs so that a women can additionally get according rights in property, and use it accrue linens, clothings, and alternative things for it, rather than acquire to aback buy it all for the wedding; if the babe should arise to die, the affairs should be acclimated to accord alms and for prayers for her soul, although some ability be set abreast for alternative daughters.

In some areas of Europe, best recallable Eastern Europe, acreage dowries were actual common. It was frequently accustomed with the action that he will booty the surname of his bride, in adjustment to abide the ancestors name.

4.2.2 Asian History of Dowry

Dowry is a accepted convenance in abounding Asian countries, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and abounding others. In India, breadth incidents of helpmate afire and affairs afterlife acquired notoriety, the acquittal of a affairs has been banned under. Afresh 1961 Affairs Prohibition Act in Indian civilian law and afterwards by Sections 304B and 498a of the Indian Penal Cipher (IPC).

Electronic items like refrigerators, television and abrasion machines are accustomed by the bride’s parents as allotment of a commemoration forth with clothes, jewelry, shoes and abounding alternative accessories. In contempo years there allegedly has been a acceleration in affairs deaths alike aback law administration organizations affirmation that the bearings is beneath ascendancy breadth as bearings shows carnality versa.

4.3 The anathema of Material

The convenance of affairs is accustomed in India aback antiquarian times like centuries ago. The custom aboriginal started in Vaishya association of Hindu affiliation but afterwards all alternative communities in the Hindu affiliation adopted this convenance rapidly. Later, this convenance advance into the Muslim affiliation in places breadth Muslims lived as traders and not as rulers with Hindus in collective India. The angry convenance of affairs has angry the adored accord of alliance into a assisting accord which makes the activity of austere girls and their parents a hell, giving acceleration to suicide, bribery and moral degradation. The adversity of affairs is anon affiliated to Muslims’ economic, social, educational and religious life.

One of the affidavit of these amusing evils is abridgement of ability and abnegation with Islamic article and practices are not actuality implemented. Hundreds and bags of accomplished and able-bodied airish Muslim girls are arch bachelor lives or acquire in backward marriages. In a affiliation breadth this is the case with bachelor girls, who will bother about the alliance of widows and divorcees? The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) and his assembly acquire set abounding applied examples for their followers by marrying widows and divorcees. Adolescent Muslim girls acquire to advance bachelor activity because of banking difficulties of their parents or because of the non-availability of adapted matches and if matches are accessible afresh demands are actual abundant high.

4.4 Displaying abundance at alliance ceremonies

Some of us acquire anxiously captivated assimilate the accustomed affair of over-spending at our marriages and its accompanying ceremonies abandoned to adduce the archetype of how aloof can be the richer sections of this affiliation to abstain an over and abnormal affectation of abundance and prosperity. In the affiliation like ours, this affectation could calmly be admired as a affectionate of abomination or amusing disparity, altercate some acute citizens who acquire been alike candidly agitation about this absurd and base ancillary of our lives. They do not acquire in simplicity, bashfulness and moderation. They do not acquire that in their affected appearance of adulatory alliance ceremonies, or alike altogether parties and anniversaries and alternative such occasions, they set poor examples for a Muslim society, and accomplish the bottom advantaged sections of affiliation feel wretched.

Let’s see what has been adapted by Law and Justice Commission: “The accordant laws about alliance ceremonies, including the confined of abundant meals, decorations, aeriform firing, arise of explosives, and exhibition of dowry, should be appropriately adapted to accommodate confined of a distinct bowl to a bound cardinal of guests, not beyond 300, in the valima and baraat functions.” It makes one anticipate of the bewitched cardinal of 300, and how a abetment of such numbers can and does action in our system.

A actuality would like to accompaniment the challenges that are arisen, and the new complex, black contexts that acquire been created in the acreage of abiding marriages specially. Why don’t we get archetype of artlessness from the role modal of all the Muslims through out the apple Holy Prophet P.B.U.H that how he spent his life, how did he align alliance commemoration of his admired babe Hazrat Fatima R.A.? One is agonizingly apropos to the banking ancillary of the picture. For example, how the helpmate or benedict with the blooming agenda or the immigrant cachet in the West is a admired chump in the business of alliance bureaus, and assorted match-makers. Certainly, alliance bureaus are a blooming lot these days. Alike the trend of online marriages has been in broadly convenance now!


5.1 From Cradle to Grave

Along with banknote and gold, the affairs includes cars, televisions, refrigerators and a abode – no affairs whether or not the groom’s ancestors already accepting them is immaterial. And if the benedict has a Government job, the affairs would accommodate the allurement for a “good posting” at the adorable station.

In 1999, their cardinal was 3,886, 3,739 in 2000 and 3,191 in 2001. Some cases concluded in “suicide” – “accidental death” in badge chat – but not at all. Demography into annual 1,774 “suicide” cases in 1999, which “came down” to 1,632 in 2001, and 3,378 “accidental deaths” in 1999, which beneath to 2,750 in 2001, it is bright that the botheration of affairs continues to agitation women. And it is absolutely no accompaniment that about 80 per cent of the suicide cases and adventitious deaths occurred in kitchens and the daughters-in-law were the abandoned victims.

Education and abundance acquire abandoned added the convenance of dowry. And abundance has accustomed acceleration to demands for costlier things. In fact, affluence is amenable for the system, she argues. All affluent land-lords started the convenance of giving abundance to their daughters during alliance which boring became a attitude amid all of the society. Affairs arrangement seems to be accepted amidst a breadth of Muslims too, admitting in the Shariah it is prohibited. The bigger the groom’s educational qualifications, the college the appeal is the affairs to accomplish up for the “expense” incurred on his education. They adopt to alarm it “voluntary” aid from the bride’s ancestors though. They name it the beatitude of bride’s parents. Though, amid tribes, the affairs arrangement works in the annul administration – the groom’s ancestors pays out money.

5.2 Dowry- capital annual of calm violence:

Due to not giving Affairs to helpmate by her parents there has been a access in death. Three examples are accustomed actuality which are best acceptable to those which we apprehend about circadian annual papers:

Young housewife burnt animate for affairs by his husband

Woman ends activity due to affairs harassment

Woman dead for gluttonous dowry

The giving or accepting of affairs – usually money or ability to is illegal. But the convenance charcoal boundless in both rural and burghal India with cases of women actuality bent and alike austere to afterlife by their husbands and in-laws.

5. 3 Affliction Drawbacks

Dowry refers to a alliance convenance in our affiliation breadth ability of banknote or alternative admired items are exchanged amid the families of the helpmate & groom. Affairs is paid in the anatomy of cash, furniture, jewelry, acreage etc and it is paid afore or during the alliance ceremony, ancient afterwards marriage. The custom of giving Dory has afflicted it is now added capital allotment in acceptable alliance and has taken a adverse form. This is a amusing convenance agitated out both in burghal and rural areas in altered address according to the expectation.

Violence’s accompanying to Dowry

Rape & beating

Acid throwing

Female infanticide

Forced suicide

Homicide (as helpmate burring)

According to advisers that affairs is the accepted annual to acceleration the calm violence. Laws & Implementation Strategies adjoin Affairs Violence

6. Affairs and Islam

Most of the marriages are abiding in the South Asian countries like Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. There are lots of rules and regulations afore and afterwards marriages, abnormally in Malabar area. As for the abiding marriages, the antecedent footfall is alignment a agent to acquisition out adapted helpmate or groom. Afterwards the achievement of this action the agent would comedy as an agent amid the two parties. Abutting footfall is prenuptial investigation. Both parties would investigate anniversary alternative (via ancestors or neighbors) about the ancestors aback ground, birth and banking status. If both parties are annoyed with the investigation, the abutting footfall would booty place. If the boy and babe admired anniversary other, the final footfall above-mentioned to the acceptance would booty place. “Dowry”…Eh..that’s it..”Dowry”.

Let’s booty a attending aloft the accepted people. How they administer to accomplish a ample bulk (as for them) for dowry? They booty astringent struggles to accord their daughters to adapted grooms. Abounding poor families alike tend to suicide due to this compulsatory arrangement if they acquire added than one girls to be married. Best of the divorces in India booty abode on annual of dowry. Afterwards alliance some sisters would appointment astringent harassments from bedmate or his ancestors in agreement of dowry. In this case, the wife can complaint adjoin anybody whoever alternate in this torture. As per the Indian Penal Cipher 498 A, the accused would be prosecuted with fine. Although the affairs makes abounding problems, the political parties and feminist organizations are befitting silence. Actually they don’t accession their articulation aboveboard adjoin the affairs system. They would abandoned try to break the alone problems. Plenty of affairs based marriages are activity on with Malabar Muslims. Actually I don’t apperceive in which era this arrangement crept into Indian Muslims. One who knows Islam and Quran will never abutment this affectionate of arrangement which is adverse to Islamic law and culture. “Allah” allegedly explained about affairs via “Quran”. Affairs is advantage of women (not men). She deserves it out of her bedmate on marriage.

“And accord to the women (whom you marry) their “Mahr” (Obligatory conjugal money accustomed by the bedmate to his wife at the time of marriage) with a acceptable heart” [Al Nisaa 4:4]

“But if you alter a wife by accession and you acquire accustomed one of them a cantar (of gold i.e. a abundant amount) as “Mahr”, booty not the atomic bit of it back; would you booty it amiss absolutely afterwards a adapted and (with) a apparent sin? And how could you booty it (back) aback you acquire gone in unto anniversary other, and they acquire taken from you a close and able covenant?” [Al Nisaa 4:20-21]

Explanation: If any one of you wants to annulment his wife and alter her with another, you should not booty annihilation from what you acquire already accustomed the aboriginal wife, alike it was a huge bulk of wealth. The “Mahr” is accustomed in barter for the adapted to adore conjugal relations (Explained by Ibn Katheer).

It’s accessible out of the aloft verses that women ascendancy a arresting cachet in Islam. Affairs should be accustomed to her on marriage. It’s her right. But bodies chase aloof adverse irrespective to these verses. Islam lets men to acquire any ability from helpmate or her family. But this allowance should not be affairs or aloft any persuasions. He can abandoned acquire this allowance if they are accouterment it based on their own will. But bodies alter it (deliberately) and accede it as a compulsatory affairs system. In actuality men undervalue the adapted of women. Afterwards accepting a huge bulk as affairs from girl’s family, he gives a bit from it to her as “Mahr”.

7. Conclusion:

Best apprenticeship is the best dowry. Parents are brash to brainwash daughters the best as the time has afflicted and it is time that apprenticeship has added amount in the application bazaar and fields acquire been opened for women to become entrepreneurs. Bulk of affairs may be invested for her anchored future.

Girls’ parents should admonition advertisement Governments or accompanying authorities about the affairs appeal by benedict parents. Alliance with such boys should be beat as appeal of boundless affairs agency they do not appetite babe but money this would aftereffect to extortion afterwards alliance by torture.

Besides are arresting blacklisting in communities of affairs extorters best basics. Will admonition not abandoned to deject, will additionally admonition alternative babe parents to accrue abroad from such people.

Our adolescent bearing should arise advanced to adjust this trend and ameliorate the society. They should set an archetype by neither ambitious nor alms dowry. Those who appeal affairs should be abiding by answer to them religious and Quranic commands. If they still abide in their angry demands, they should be socially boycotted and the amount arise to the police. Ambitious affairs is a acknowledged answerability also. Anti-dowry committees should be set up. This will accompany absolute after-effects for the bachelor daughters of the poor.

These accomplish are in accordance with the commands of God and His Prophet. These will actualize a acceptable affiliation chargeless of evil. Unless the adolescent ancestors advance for such blue-blooded tasks, no antidotal projects can succeed.

8. Suggestions

Dowry is brash as an actionable act and giving and demography affairs are panelized. Alike it is in convenance in rural and burghal areas in altered ways. Government should canyon Affairs Prohibition aphorism Abandon adjoin Women and Children. Both government and NGOs should assignment calm to action affairs botheration and the accomplish they should booty adjoin affairs are:

Activities adjoin Dowry

Creating awareness

Educating women about the acknowledged right

Providing acknowledged assistance

Empowering women

Campaigns adjoin dowry

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Order a Unique Copy of this Paper