Challenges And Constraints Of Solar Energy Environmental Sciences Essay

The better claiming that Solar Activity faces today is the addition accepted activity sources that are cheaper in agreement of burning measures (Rupees per KWh).Electricity generated from Solar Activity is costlier compared to that produced from coal-fired ability plants. Government and enterprises are alive on bearing cheaper solar beef to abate amount of usage. Although the amount of Solar Photovoltaic technology has decreased in the aftermost years, it is still not a achievable band-aid for ample calibration ability bearing purposes. In India, the boilerplate amount of Photovoltaic modules is about Rs. 2 lc/KWh and the amount of electricity bearing of electricity from Solar Photovoltaic and Solar thermal avenue is in the ambit of Rs. 12 -20 per kWh and Rs. 10 – 15 per kWh respectively. The electricity produced this way is four-five times costlier from that produced from accepted sources. Advance in technology is appropriate to abate this gap.

The accomplishment action needs to be added cost- able back the Solar Photovoltaic about-face of electricity is a high-technology action ambitious aerial akin of abilities and expertise. Companies are allocating appropriate funds for analysis and development in the industry to animate innovations to advance the process. Back the acreage is a almost new one with beneath ability in the field, new companies face challenges in arresting up with the absolute players in the field.

India is appropriately amid to accept acceptable sunlight all annular the year. About there are a few places which do not accept abundant solar activity throughout the year, which affects the amount of production. Areas which accept huge amounts of condensate and are atramentous for best genitalia of the year, automatically get disqualified out as -to-be sites for Solar Activity generation.

Another above claiming that solar activity faces is accumulator of the generated power. Electricity from Photovolatic beef cannot be generated during the night and during blurred canicule and appropriately acceptable measures accept to be adopted to abundance the activity produced during the addition times of the day. Addition above disadvantage is that admission on a abbreviate appellation base cannot be predicted. Back India is amid abreast to the equator the admission radiation alter a little every year, it is about difficult to adumbrate the admission radiations on a day to day basis. Apart of this there are melancholia variations which account the accumulation and appeal to abound out of phase. It is appropriately acute that Solar Activity cannot be relied aloft as the alone antecedent of electricity for abeyant uses like amplitude heating, till able accumulator measures are invented. It is additionally difficult to abundance activity back it additionally increases the amount of assembly and installation. Alone already this affair gets bound can solar activity absolutely attempt with addition exact sources of energy.

ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS

Due to absence of able government adjustment ,local government and individuals are agnostic about the aftereffect that ambience up of big solar ability plants will accept on the individuals and environment. A ample calibration solar ability bulb about requires about one aboveboard kilometer for every 20-60MW generated.

RAW MATERIAL AND WASTE PRODUCTS

Some of the abstracts ( like Cadmium) acclimated for bearing Solar PV beef are chancy and addition raw abstracts like plastics acclimated for the packaging of the beef are non-biodegradable, thereby impacting the environment. Although some of the decay generated during the accomplishment action is recyclable (silicon), not all addition abstracts are recyclable and auctioning of the above is a arduous process.

AESTHETICS AND DESIGN

Another barrier to added acceptance of solar corpuscle and solar bore articles and systems amid bartering and residential consumers is aesthetics and design. Consumers accept resisted solar articles for artful reasons. Established solar articles are heavy, rigid, brittle and non-modular. Solar corpuscle and solar bore manufacturers can advance aesthetics by developing articles that can be added alluringly chip into architecture structures, and that are lighter, adjustable and modular and appropriately added feasible.

Growth in approaching and active factors

Concentrated Solar Vs Photovoltaic Solar

Solar activity appliance technologies can be broadly classified into two categories as

Concentrated Solar Technology

Photovoltaic Solar Technology

In Concentrated Solar Technology the solar activity converts calefaction liquids into steam, which is again acclimated to drive turbines to aftermath electricity, heating and cooling purposes, accouterment hot baptize etc. In PV Solar, solar panels are acclimated to aftermath electricity. The Concentrated Solar technology provides a acceptable addition to PV solar, one that is beneath big-ticket and added versatile.

Benefits of concentrated solar technology are:

It uses absolute assets like generators, brim and mirrors. Due to which the assembly costs are abundant lower than PV solar

In bearing solar activity no chancy abstracts are used. Appropriately it is chargeless from assembly hassles that could appear due to approaching government laws or policies.

It can additionally abundance the calefaction that is generated during the day, and use it at a afterwards time back the electricity is needed. Autumn calefaction is abundant added able than best forms of autumn electricity, and does not crave big-ticket accessories or ample advance of land.

Due to the above allowances Concentrated Solar Technology is currently a added accustomed afterwards method. But the abeyant for PV Solar Technology is college and is actuality formed over beyond all countries.

Government incentives

Major allotment of the solar activity assembly has been backed by the government apple over. Few of the government incentives in the afterward means are:

FIT (mainly in europe)

Direct Subsidy on panels

Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS, in US)

ITC (Investment tax credits, in US)

Some of the goals with account to solar activity of altered countries apprenticed by government initiatives are:

The European Union has affiliated goals to get 20% of its activity from apple-pie sources by 2012.

China’s Renewable Activity Law aims to accession the absolute allotment of renewable activity acclimated in the country to 15% by 2020.

The U.S. Stimulus Bill of February of 2009 included $60 billion in accommodation guarantees for companies architecture solar and wind plants with the ambition of acceleration renewable activity assembly from 2009 to 2012.

In June of 2008, Germany accustomed a law acid its solar subsidies by 10%. Further, beneath the law subsidies will abatement addition 8%-10% anniversary year for the abutting three years.

The Spanish Government cut its solar subsidies by 30%.

Renewable activity demand

Shifts in renewable activity appeal are a above disciplinarian for the solar market. Two above drivers of this about-face are altitude change and peak oil.

Climate Change – With added bodies than anytime actuality acquainted of all-around abating and its abeyant effects, and abhorrence of the repercussions of a carbon-based activity arrangement is active customer appeal for alternatives like solar. With accretion cardinal of bodies actuality acquainted of all-around abating and its adverse effects, ascent abhorrence acquired due to carbon based activity production, the appeal for addition activity assets are in demand. The cardinal of acquaintance campaigns to advance the use of addition assets has added abundantly over the accomplished few years and will abide to acceleration in the future. Wind and Solar activity are the aboriginal abeyant footfall taken into consideration.

Peak Oil and Activity Independence – The anytime ascent oil prices and the absence of award the mines and oil affluence are a growing concern. It is predicted that the oil assets will abate to such an admeasurement that the advance of any country will be a standstill if measures are not taken today to abbreviate the dependence. Furthermore, a ample allotment of the apple oil accumulation can be begin in politically agitated countries; with OPEC accepting ascendant ascendancy over apple oil accumulation (and, therefore, prices), abounding countries admiration activity alternatives in adjustment to breach assurance on geopolitically ambiguous nations.

Technology and Silicon Supply

Silicon was ahead acclimated abundantly by the semiconductor industry. But, with the appearance of solar ability and its accelerated advance the appeal for them has added exponentially, consistent in an under-supply of silicon clumsy to accommodated the accepted demand. Appropriately the college prices in silicon beggarly college assembly costs for solar companies – and lower margins. For a acceptable advance and ascendancy in costs of assembly in the approaching the demand-supply calm charge be in check.

In contempo years the abstruse advancements in the acreage of solar ability has been accelerated and tremendous. Everyone beyond the amount chain, manufacturers and suppliers are alive appear bearing added solar activity out of the absolute solar equipment. Advancements accept included accretion corpuscle activity efficiency, application thinner wafers, and accretion breeding ability in low-light (generation of activity alike on a blurred day). The advance in two new accomplishment processes namely string-ribbon technology and thin-film technology, advised to acutely abate the silicon required to accomplish PV cells, could badly abatement the amount of new PV cells.

The use of a new nanotechnology based access application Tetrapod Quantum Dots (TQ-Dots) is actuality considered. It is an economical addition to alter the silicon dent based solar beef with adjustable TQ-Dot solar beef and has the advantage of breeding electricity from UV and bittersweet wavelengths acceptance bearing 24/7.

Government Regulation

As the solar industry continues to abound at 25% per annum, the government is faced with the claiming to adapt the industry to acquiesce for candid administration of the industry benefits. The Union Ministry has set up a abstracted Ministry of Non-Conventional Activity Sources afterwards renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. The government is aggravating adamantine to accompany India to the cardinal 1 akin by introducing filigree based incentives and accouterment acknowledgment at assorted levels of accomplishment and administration in its contempo account 2010-11.

Effect on the Environment: There is an advancing agitation on how Concentrated Solar Plants abnormally inare affecting the environment. There is a affair how the use of all-inclusive amounts of accessible acreage for Solar Activity development will affect bounded inhabitants. Bounded Government and Environmental bodies accept aloft affair for reliable authoritative measures to be bureaucracy to accept the affect on the operations of such ample plants on the environment. It is accepted that the government will anatomy assertive ‘special activity zones’, area concentrated solar plants will be setup.

Permitting: The admittance fees to set up Solar Plants varies in altered areas in the countries, which causes variations in the bureaucracy amount causing a bind in the minds of -to-be investors.The amount of Solar Accession in a burghal varies from Rs.15,000 to Rs. 50,000.Many countries that acclimated to face such issues are now brief to a compatible admittance fees arrangement to animate advance in this field.

Regulating Solar Activity Providers: As allotment of JNNSM, government has committed NTPC VidyutVyapar Nigam, for the acquirement of Solar Activity by absolute solar plants, the prices of which are anchored by the Central Authoritative Electricity Commission for a accustomed aeon of time.

The ability administration companies will acquirement the ability generated from these plants at the prices set by the regulator.They would additionally chase the beneath mentioned norms:

CERC has appear assessment of Rs. 18.44 per assemblage for solar PV ability and Rs. 13.45 per assemblage for solar thermal ability for 25 years;

Zero or concessional assignment to be activated on acceptation of some specific items;

Zero Customs assignment on accomplish of abounding solar activity accessories aural the country;

NTPC VVN will acquirement solar ability for a aeon of 25 years at anchored assessment appear by CERC;

CERC will analysis the costs every year and fix assessment appropriately for new projects.

Union Account 2010-11: Government has appear an allocation of $10bn for the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission. The account additionally provides incentives to clandestine solar companies by abbreviation community assignment on solar console by 5% and exempting customs assignment on photovoltaic panels.

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