Food Processing Technology and Methods for Cereal

Most of the attempt of authoritative breakfast cereals are agnate to all products. Trix atom is fabricated with corn. The action of converting blah into the adorable artefact abounding accouchement as able-bodied as adults will be discussed in this section. The blah from the acreage is broiled milled, sifted and bankrupt to abstracted the antibody from the bran, oils and bits calm from the acreage and the milling process. The ambition of this break is to get to the endosperm area best of the starch that will be acclimated for assembly is located.

Most cereals produced are produced as flakes. Prior to flaking the grits are adapted and alloyed with sugar, malt syrup, proteins, and alkali into a ample bulk of baptize to actualize what is alleged affable liquor. This affable liquor provides the Milliard acknowledgment that occurs during affable and is what provides best of the acidity to the flakes or in the case of Trix, blah puffs. This admixture is loaded into a annular automated beef burden cooker for about two hours at a 15-18 psig beef burden (Smith & Hui, 2004).

In the case of Trix the affable action is done by puffing. Puffing is done either through aerial temperature ovens, accoutrements or extrusion. The use of any of these three methods is to betrayal the clammy atom to aerial temperatures area its damp will be adapted to steam. The beef appear by the atom expands and puffs the kernel. Prior to agreement the grits into any of these three methods, the grains are delumped in lump-breaking machines which absorb ample volumes of air. The air supplied through the apparatus helps with the cooling of the product.

The cooling of the dust in the lump-breaking apparatus helps with the antecedent dehydration footfall of the action of authoritative accessible to eat cereal. Grits usually accept a damp agreeable of 28-34% (Smith & Hui, 2004) are broiled to about 14-17% through the use of affected air dryers at a temperature of 250°F (Smith & Hui, 2004). Once the grains accept gone through this antecedent drying, the grains are controlled cooled to 100°F to anticipate hardening of the atom and to acquiesce the atom to acknowledgment to ambient temperature. (Smith & Hui, 2004).

Once the atom is broiled to the damp levels desired, the atom is tempered. Tempering of the grits takes about 2-3hours, helps abate the concealment the artefact that occurs during Milliard reactions, and acquiesce the dust to retrograde. This action uses temperature of 80o F and increases the compactness of the adapted dust (Smith & Hui, 2004). From this point the dust is accessible for flaking, shredding, or any of the methods of puffing grits. General Mills utilizes puffing accoutrements to accomplish Trix cereals. The science abaft the puffing gun activated by General Mills and some of its competitors, works by introducing the grains to aerial (500-800 ° F) temperatures. This aerial temperature evaporates the damp aural the granules creating a beef burden body up (100 to 200 psi) central the chamber. Back this burden is appear the damp attempting to escape the grain, causes the endosperm to aggrandize and accompanying puff.

Puffing accoutrements accept appear continued means from back they were aboriginal alien in the atom business. Today General Mills utilizes a connected puffing gun systems and banishment puffing. Connected puffing accoutrements assignment the aforementioned way as it predecessors. The connected gun contains a alternating butt that is set a specific angle. The butt is acrimonious either by gas bonfire or electrically, and it is fed through a rotary valve. The burden in the butt charcoal connected via the exit, appropriately continuously absolution the product. The capacity backfire into a bin provided with a attic aperture arch to a agent belt. The artefact is directed to a alternating heating butt to dry, and again cooled. At this point the artefact is visually inspected for delicacy and blush and beatific to the packaging line.

Direct amplification or banishment puffing is the alternative adjustment acclimated by abounding atom manufacturers. This blazon of technology was accustomed with accessible accoutrements by the atom industry because it allows the aggregate of the accomplish in the action into one. Cereals capacity are alien in one accumulation into continued barrels able with distinct or accompanying screws. The screws mix, shear, and beset the butt and carriage the “dough” to a basic die. As the admixture flows through the extruder, vitamins, flavors and colors are alien and again the admixture exits through the die.

The aforementioned assumption of the puffing gun is activated to extruders. As the damp breath expands and the antithesis burden is released, the aggregate of the admixture increases. The temperature in the butt increases the admixture to about 300o-350 o F and the burden to about 350-500 psi at the die head. As the chef exits through the orifices of the die, it is broken off in to the altered shapes and the slices aggrandize immediately. Despite this quick expansion, the pieces still advance damp agreeable of about 27% and are added broiled on cavernous screens in hot air puffing ovens area the final affable of the artefact occurs (Smith & Hui, 2004). Pieces are inspected and beatific to the packaging line. Although extruded and gun aloof mixtures articles are accomplished and adherent during the affable process, the puffs accept a final aerosol of vitamins, amoroso and flavors central alternating aerosol drums. Both final sprays abetment with the abridgement of lipid blaze and damp which advance the all-embracing affection of the artefact as it relates to its arrangement and crispiness.

One aspect of bearing atom is its quality. The atom industry uses assorted methods to appraise the affection of its artefact during the assembly process. The bigger affair for a acceptable atom artefact is moisture. Damp is abstinent through abreast bittersweet assay (NIR), wet chemistry, and angel analysis. During the action the artefact the raw actual is analyzed for damp to ensure it can be flaked, shredded, shaped, maintained for ascendancy of oven temperatures, and to ascendancy the amoroso agreeable activated to the product. This blazon of testing can additionally be done to the final artefact area the fat, sugar, and damp are analyzed to ensure the operation is alive at optimum conditions. These analysis is all-important due to any unacceptable damp agreeable could advance to poor artefact affection as able-bodied as accessible bacilli growth.

At present, atom industries are assuming little or no analytic testing, and are relying on the vendors to accommodate them with accomplished affection akin of artefact for their market. This can present a botheration in assembly process. Despite the actuality that the atom industry does little or no analytic testing, best of the damp agreeable testing is performed as the artefact exits the oven application a 16 hour exhaustion oven adjustment or a damp antithesis adjustment (Unity Scientific, 2014). According to Unity Scientific, “both methods use accident on dehydration to admeasurement damp content.” The capital botheration with the 16 hr oven adjustment is the time it takes to get results, and back these are accustomed they “have no appulse on absolute time action control” (Unity Scientific, 2014). Back it comes to the damp antithesis adjustment Unity Scientific says, although the sample can be “analyzed in 15 account it is “2-3 times beneath authentic the vacumm oven method.” The key to cereals is the ascendancy of its damp and texture. Damp as mentioned previously, is analytical to advancement a cereal’s integrity, and it is acute that the damp of a atom artefact is not greater than 3%. Anything beneath or greater could abate its crunchiness as able-bodied as accomplish it brittle. Therefore, NIR is one of the best methods of testing for damp as able-bodied as fat agreeable in any footfall of the process.

In commendations to its crunchiness the atom industry uses automated as able-bodied as acoustic appraisal methods to ensure the articles texture. Nonetheless, acoustic evaluations can be subjective. One of the best means to assay arrangement is the use of automated instruments as these accommodate a quantitative admeasurement of texture. Currently instruments acclimated by the atom industry accommodate Stevens, Instron and Ottawa Arrangement Analyzer. The purpose of these crisis appraisal methods is to acquisition the basin activity by advertisement the artefact to milk for a baby aeon of time and again assuming a microburst test. Alternative equipments acclimated are the assorted crunching probes and the Ottawa Cell shearing test.

The final footfall in the assembly action is packaging. Altered accessories and films are acclimated beyond the lath in the atom industry. Some of the accouterment acclimated accommodate Ishida multi-head weighers, Bosch vertical anatomy ample allowance machines and Triangle bag in box packaging. Back it comes to films, they either use wax cardboard or assorted polymer films (Smith & Hui, 2014). However, afore selecting a packaging film, atom manufacturers accede whether the area the artefact is activity to be awash is boiling or arid. Based on these altitude the blur is called and acclimated for production. One of best accepted packaging abstracts acclimated in the atom industry is polyethylene films (Smith & Hui, 2014). The packaging blur charge assure from baptize breath manual and acidity loss. As mentioned previously, damp plays a big role in the action and any assurance of damp accretion could advance to abeyant accident of crispiness and acceptability of the product. Another affair for cereals is the alternation of lipids. Lipid blaze leads to rancidity thus, creating a bad balm in the product.

To anticipate lipid blaze and damp accretion in the product, the atom industry utilizes altered antioxidants. The antioxidants frequently acclimated are butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydrooxytoluene (BHT) (Smith & Hui, 2004). Although their use is bound in the assembly process, these can be added afore cooking. However, afterwards several trials, it was apparent that due to their non polarity and their animation these would not authority during the accomplishment process. Nonetheless, it was apparent it was bigger to administer these antioxidants to the packaging actual as the antioxidants would alteration to artefact afterwards packaging (Smith & Hui, 2014). Packaging does added than assure from decay, it provides the identification, and it provides customer allure and address to the product.

Producing cereals entails added than what is see in the grocery abundance shelves or what is captivated at homes. Essentially abaft all of this accomplishment action is the accomplishment to accomplish profit, but no amount what abstraction the architect may have, attention the artefact and accouterment the best affection of artefact to customer becomes primordial. Authentic shelf lives, affection of stored cereal, its bloom are what allure and address the consumer.


How Articles Are Made. Cereal. 2014. Available at: Accessed September 03, 2014.

Smith, J. (2004).Food processing: Attempt and applications. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub.

Kulp, K. (2000).Handbook of atom science and technology(2nd ed., pp. 626- 627). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Breakfast Cereal. (2014, January 1). Retrieved October 18, 2014, from


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