Cambodia was accustomed as Khmer Kingdom, which was one of the “most powerful” states in South East Asia. (Ayres, 2000, p.1). However, Cambodia has diminished and attenuated back the collapse of “Khmer Empire.” (Duggan, 1996, p.363)
The civilian war has jeopardized the amusing and bread-and-butter development of Cambodia. Best of the amusing structures and rural infrastructures were absolutely destroyed during Khmer Rouge, abnormally in the educational sector, which is one of the best important for developing the country.
The apprenticeship arrangement has afflicted badly back the French antecedents from 1968 to 1953, in which apprenticeship started in the pagodas “combined avant-garde and acceptable arrangement …a baby accumulation of accouchement entered the French academy system.” ( Duggan, 1996, p.363).
Cambodia was accustomed abounding adeptness in 1953 (Ibid). Therefore, Prince Sihanouk was actual absorbed in “educational sector”, and he absitively to accept 20 percent of the civic account in adjustment to aggrandize the educational arrangement in Cambodia, however, his accommodation was bitterly criticized by alternative bodies for not accouterment the educational equity, because the rural accouchement did not accept any educational arrangement from the Prince. He aloof mainly focused on the burghal children. (Duggan, 1996, p.364)
Lon Nol came to adeptness in 1970, he started cambodianizing by auspicious acceptance to participate in angry adjoin “the civic enemy” [Vietnamese]. Best of the acceptance were complex in the army, so they were not able to appear schools, and there were not abundant teaching abstracts for the agents in the classrooms.(Ayres, 2000, pp.76-80)
April 17, 1975 Khmer Rouge took ascendancy of Phnom Penh and abolished all amusing structures and some schools were eradicated and others were afflicted into prisons, workshops, etc., Accouchement were not accustomed to study. A Ministry of Apprenticeship absolutely “existed”, but did not appointment actively and there were several textbooks were produced to “guide teachers” (Ayres, 2000, pp. 109-110). Moreover, Ayres (2000) wrote that “the educational crisis in Cambodia amid March 1970 and April 1975 was a activity of the actual and animal abolition generated by a nation at war. (p.68)
This analysis will focus on the afterward questions:
1. What are some of the accustomed problems in apprenticeship in Cambodia?
2. What is the role of the abecedary and methods of apprenticeship in Cambodia?
3. What is John Dewey’s angle on the role of the abecedary and methods of instruction?
4. What contributions Dewey’s would be advantageous in developing the role of the abecedary and methods of apprenticeship in Cambodia?
1. The accustomed issues in apprenticeship in Cambodia.
The new government was adopted beneath the administration and abutment of the United Nations (UN) which assisted in active a chargeless and fair acclamation in Cambodia in 1993. The capitalism and chargeless bazaar accept been acclimatized in Cambodia back then. The adopted investors and all-embracing organizations, namely the United Nations Accouchement Fund (UNICEF), the Apple Bank (WB) and alternative Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) began to accomplish their projects in educational area in Cambodia. (Duggan 1996, p.362).
Although there accept been ample changes recently, the educational arrangement has not accomplished an all-embracing goals by 2015 yet, because the cardinal of “drop-out and repetition” in primary academy is still high. The “repetition rates” in primary alone from 26.3 percent to 10.2 percent amid 1998 and 2005. In addition, drop-out ante in primary academy is beneath than in accessory school. (MoEYS, 2008, p.8)
Noticeably, the affection of apprenticeship account provided for both in primary and lower accessory levels is still in a bad activity acquired by the abridgement of resources, poorly-trained agents and “principals”…poor authoritative system, teaching and acquirements abstracts and absurdity from the commune and bigoted principals.(World Bank, 2008, p.11)
Furthermore, the analysis which was conducted by the CSES in 2004, based on the catechism “What are the above problems with ancestry in this village?” appear that there were three capital problems:
The active accustomed of agents which agency that teacher’s bacon is still low that cannot allow to buy anything.
Poor basement because the schools are in a bad condition. For example, there are not abundant chairs and tables for the acceptance to sit and learn.
The area of the schools is not abutting abundant for the acceptance to airing from their home.
The calm abstracts provided by EMIS in 2004 abundant that 69 percent of primary academy agents had accustomed a amount from lower accessory academy (grade 9), and there was alone 7 percent of the agents who accomplished the primary school. Besides, there was 24 percent of primary agents had completed the aerial accessory school. (MoEYS, 2008, p. 20)
Therefore, the affection of apprenticeship in Cambodia needs improving. Thus the Royal Government of Cambodia has broadcast civic account from 0.9 percent in 1997 to 1.5 percent in 2006. (MoEYS & Apple Bank. June 2008, p.59) .Also, the government has promised to admission bacon for all agents from 15 percent to 20 percent every year. (MoEYS & Apple Bank: June 2008, pp.59-62)
2.1. The role of the abecedary in Cambodia
The student’s acquirements advance is mainly based on the teacher’s achievement in the classroom. Thus the abecedary act as the archetypal or sample for the acceptance to admission knowledge, and agents charge be committed to time and efforts in adjustment to acquaint and actuate acceptance to accomplish their acquirements objectives. Agents accept to absorb added time beside the appointment alive hour to adapt appointment plans, actual appointment and accord a amusing and affable atmosphere to the acceptance in the classroom in adjustment to advance their acquirements ability. (World Bank, 2008, p.71)
2.2. The methods of apprenticeship in Cambodia
The acceptable teaching style, was absolutely based on the abecedary “frontal and blueprint learning”, has activated in the Cambodian classroom for abounding years. But in 2005, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) accustomed the new educational theory, which has activated in European and American classrooms, “The Attempt of Adolescent Affable Ancestry “and acclimatized it Cambodia. These attempt are actual advantageous for Cambodian acceptance because it focuses on the child’s freedom, which creates a amusing and affable ambiance for the pupils to do a array of activities in the classrooms. Moreover, it absolutely helps acceptance apprentice things through their own experiences. (MoEYS & Apple Bank. June, 2008, pp. 71-72)
On the alternative hand, in 2002 the Government of Cambodia anesthetized a new law accompanying ‘Early Childhood Apprenticeship and Care (ECCE)’. This law focuses on the adolescent who age-old 3 to 8. There are three categories of the programs: First, the Royal Government of Cambodia is amenable for authoritative pre-school program. Second, the albatross comes from the association and the aftermost one is the parent’s responsibility.
The capital purpose of the affairs is to advance not alone the children’s apperception but additionally the concrete anatomy and the affairs is beneath the Department of Early Childhood Education, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. (UNESCO, 2006. pp.5-6)
3. What is John Dewey’s angle on the role of the abecedary and methods of instruction?
The man who has afflicted the educational arrangement from acceptable appearance (authoritarian classroom) to avant-garde appearance (democratic classroom) is John Dewey. He was accustomed as American psychologist, philosopher, activated abecedary and educational reformer, was built-in in Burlington, New England, Vermont in 1859 and died in 1952. He accomplished Bachelor amount in 1879 at Vermont University, connected his abstraction in aesthetics for a year and accustomed PhD from Hopkins University. (Taneja. V.R. 2010, p.136). Moreover, he formed as a aerial academy abecedary at a “remote areas” in Pennsylvania. He was so analytical in philosophy, so he started autograph his abstract article alleged “Medical concrete Assumption of Materialism.” (Allen. C. 2005, Track: 139)
Beside teaching, Dewey opened his own academy “University Elementary School”. The best important abstraction of aperture this academy was to abide to analysis and acquaintance in “new account and methods. The accouchement who were beneath 15 years are acceptable to register, and
teachers charge accept abounding years acquaintance in teaching and the classes are not big, and there are about 10 pupils provided for anniversary teacher. This academy was to appoint the pupils in amusing experience. For example, pupils abstruse how to “cook, sew, and weave.”(Taneja, 2010, p.p.136-137)
Role of the abecedary of Dewey
For Dewey, the role of the abecedary “play awfully important role”. A Deweyan abecedary should be (encourage?) complex in the child’s active force and “interests” rather than the conduct of adeptness (fixing account in apperception by repetition).” Moreover, the role of the abecedary is to pave the way for the acceptance to acquaintance the after-effects in the absolute world. The alternative role is to abetment the pupils in ambidextrous with “contemporary altitude and experiences” and activities they accept to accost daily. Child’s abandon is the best cogent of all. However, teacher’s role is to “regulate and organize” it well.
The abecedary should be acquainted of his own “responsibilities and power” to acquaint the accouchement to “acquire the accomplishment and knowledge.” In adjustment to save time by not appliance “chalk and talk”, abecedary accept to “observe, plan and encourage” acceptance to learn. Deweyan agents booty a huge albatross and big adventitious to accommodate the pupils with both in “democratic co-operation and the college bookish pursuits and the fullest artful experience.” (Taneja, 2010, pp.150-152)
According to Dewey, class is not based aloft anchored animal knowledge, subdivided logically into subjects, and genitalia of subjects. The class should set up annular the child’s activities and not subjects. Dewey banned to activity religious and moral apprenticeship through lessons, but he chose to activity the activated experience. ((Taneja, 2010. p.p.150-152)
Dewey’s class and methods of teaching accept activated not alone in the American classrooms but additionally in the world’s classroom including Cambodia. Dewey had afflicted the acceptable apprenticeship arrangement into autonomous apprenticeship arrangement by accepting child-centered, which focused anxiously on the abandon of the adolescent in the classroom.
After Khmer Rouge burst in January 7, 1979, the new government was installed by the Vietnamese government. Educational arrangement was actuality restored. However, the Phnom Penh government has estimated that 75 percent of teachers, 96 percent of University acceptance and 67 percent of all primary and accessory academy acceptance were murdered. (Beveniste, Apple Bank, 2008.p.8)
Ayres, (200) wrote that in 1979, apprenticeship was in a “severe crisis” because there were no acclimatized authoritative offices no “curricular”, teaching abstracts were not abundant and teaching agents is not qualified. Mr. Chan Ven was appointed as the Minister of Education, Youth and Sports with a aggregation of Vietnamese admiral to plan the “rehabilitation” of Cambodian educational system. Vietnamese government started acknowledging both the “provincial and civic levels”. Therefore, the Vietnamese was able to appoint agents which were “virtually best up from the streets and apple pathway.” ( p p.128-130)
According to Duggan (1996) in Phnom Penh itself, there were three Vietnamese admiral for every Cambodian official, ten Vietnamese soldiers for every Cambodian one. (p.366)
The cardinal of schools has added rapidly back the 1980’s, however, the government of Phnom Penh still faces the big problems active able educational arrangement because best of agents are not acquiescent and academy curricular is not standardized. For instance, “farmers, artisans and abject workers” were alleged to teachers.
Therefore, the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports and alternative all-embracing organizations (UNESCO, UNICEF and Apple Bank) accept formed co-operatively to advance the educational area in adjustment to accomplish the “Cambodian Millennium Development Goals” (CMDG). Moreover, in 2005 Ministry of Apprenticeship developed civic plan of activity to ability the goals of educational for all (EFA) by 2015 to ensure that Cambodian accouchement and youths accept an according befalling to admission education. (pp.6-8)
In 2004, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports accustomed a new affairs which is alleged “Child Affable Schools program” focused on primary level.(Ibid) This educational approach ability accept been afflicted by the American educational advocate Dewey because his teaching methods and the role of the abecedary is to facilitate and actuate the pupils to apprentice new things through their own abandon and experience.
Name: YIM SOPHEAK Date: January 31, 2011
I able the afterward appointment by myself and alone with the advice of the abstract mentioned in the references. I did not use alternative abstract to address my assignment. I apperceive that appropriation is a austere answerability and I am absolutely acquainted of the abrogating consequences.
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