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Hydroxyapatite as a Substrate for Bone Reconstruction

To action the shortcomings of autografts and allografts associated with bound availability of tissue, anguish of the donor site, accident of ache manual and immunogenic rejection; clinicians accept started centuries ago implanting bogus abstracts in the anatomy to aid and restore activity of organs or tissues.1-6 The aerial accident of morbidity, accomplishment appropriate to autumn cartilage from donor, and so abounding factors accept been the account for the access in applications of cartilage acting materials.7-9

Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics produced synthetically or by processing biological substrates and is acclimated broadly and auspiciously for cartilage reconstruction. There are abounding accustomed sources for HA which accommodate beastly bone, bovine bone1,2 coral3,4 chitosan5,6fish bone7and egg shell8, and so. However a affair with accustomed HA is accident of manual of diseases back able alertness is not followed to abolish all protein9. Constructed HA is added frequently used, because of calmly availability, and chargeless from ache manual risk. HA are accessible as granules and blocks with altered pore sizes or as injectable material. HA is osteoconductive in attributes and serves as a structural arch for the architectonics of new cartilage tissues. Several authors accept appropriate HA is decumbent to intraoral abasement or dissolution10-25 but others accept apparent no resorption13-22 like our case. Here we address analytic cases which showed the radiological affirmation of cartilage accumulation afterwards added than 4 years of chase up.

Clinical Address 1- In our abstraction accumulation the Macho accommodating age-old 65 yrs had alternate OKC on crabbed allotment of the bill (Figure-1) which appropriate fractional hemi mandibulectomy with disarticulation. Accommodating was not accessible for any alternative modalities of about-face except condylar stainless animate recon plate. Considering accommodating age and abnegation for abroad or chargeless flaps, our aggregation of doctors aggressive by orthopedic backup strategies and indigenously advised hydroxyapatite block. Which has been able by Biograft (IFGL Ceramics Kolkota, India) on request. This has been acclimated for about-face of crabbed mandibular birthmark distal to canine. The block anchored to stainless animate condylar bowl application 26 cast wires. (Figure-2 & Figure-3)After 5 years of appraisal the accommodating had no complications, absorption, break but actual little cartilage accumulation apparent radiologically (Figure -4, Figure-5 & Figure-6).

Clinical Address 2- The Macho Accommodating of 20 yrs, appear to our administration with abscess in antecedent bill back 8 yrs which was baby initially and progressively developed to the present size.( Figure-7) Under accepted anesthesia the bane has been resected arch to a mid-line defect. The accommodating denied for any alternative about-face options including abroad flaps and chargeless flaps because of affordability. So it is absitively to accept about-face application SS recon bowl with a block affix for support. (Figure-9) In this case we are assured affiliation tissue and afterwards cartilage accumulation as the affix block is in acquaintance with the awkward edges on both sides.

Clinical address 3- Case of unicystic ameloblastoma in a accommodating age-old 55 years macho bridge the midline, undergone resection and about-face application BBHA and SS about-face plate. (Figure-9 &Figure-10) In this case we are assured awkward bridging amid interface of the cartilage fragment and affix end on both midline and ramus breadth of mandible.

Surgical Considerations:

The surgeon should change gloves afore administration the BBHA actual because articulate flora and bits ahead best up on gloves during the pre-grafting stages of anaplasty could alloy the BBHA, consistent in a consecutive infection. In its antecedent form, BBHA is breakable and charge be handled and shaped anxiously so it does not aback fracture, although the actual becomes actual able afterwards healing. It is important to use irrigation back acid the alone grafts from the beyond blocks with a bur and back adorning the contours. BBHA grafts can be acclimated as interpositional (inlay) grafts placed amid osteotomies or as facial accession (onlay) grafts or for mandibular about-face of lateral/midline defects. They can be activated to the maxilla, mandible, chin, orbit, zygoma, nose, forehead, and cranium. Onlay grafts may crave stabilization by agreement cartilage screws through the material, as in BBHA button or audacity onlay grafts. A lag screw/wire address should be acclimated with basal abbreviating to anticipate fracturing of the grafts.

Rigid fixation is ascendant to accommodate the all-important adherence and accent aegis for the BBHA grafts to alleviate properly. The grafts in the cartilage should be accurately contoured and adherent in position. If there is boundless advancement amid the cartilage segments and BBHA grafts or a anatomic overload, the grafts may displace or fracture. Alternatively, a cogent abatement in the bulk of cartilage advance through the implants could occur, consistent in a nonunion. A bendable diet is encouraged for 3 to 4 months during the antecedent post-surgery healing appearance to abbreviate loading and micro movement, appropriately preventing displacement, fracture, or nonunion of the grafts. The use of 4 cartilage plates is recommended to antithesis the maxilla, with 2 cartilage screws aloft and 2 cartilage screws beneath the akin of osteotomy for anniversary cartilage plate.47,48

Postsurgical displacement or breach of the BHA grafts can action as a aftereffect of the following:38

1. Inadequate adamant fixation and accent protection,

2. Improper contouring or adjustment of the implant into the osteotomy site,

3. Parafunctional habits (i.e., clenching, bruxism),

4. Poor accommodating compliance,

5. Trauma.


The use of cartilage affix actual both particulate12,14,16,18,19,21,38-40,54and block graft13,15,17, 19,20,22,23,41 advised in bodies and animals. The majority of beastly studies begin cartilage accumulation aural affix material10,11,18,42-51 and others appear affiliation tissue formation.43,52,53 The beastly studies appear accumulation of cartilage 12-17,29-32,37-40,54 and others appear affiliation tissue surrounding HA particles.18,19,29 Abiding assimilation & biocompatibility of BHA has been accustomed actuality in orthognathic and craniofacial surgery.50 Histologic studies29,30,35 and a abiding analytic abstraction authenticate acceptable biologic accepting of the grafts in affiliation with the maxillary sinus. The apathy of HA is acute agency for antecedent healing20 as adaptable particles abet affiliation tissue accumulation and anchored advance cartilage formation.

Wolford et al. alien the use of absorptive BHA as a cartilage affix acting in orthognathic and craniofacial surgery.30 Rosen and Ackerman appear aggravation bulk of 4.3% afterwards a aftereffect aeon of 6 to 20 months in orthognathic surgical BHA grafting48,49 Ayers et al17 Holmes et al31 and Nunes et al.16 approved an boilerplate agreement of 48.5-53% hydroxyapatite matrix, 18-27% bone, and 33.5-21% bendable tissue in BBHA grafts through histomorphometry afterwards 4.7 to 16.4, beggarly 19.1 months appropriately with biopsies of BBHA grafts which were acclimated in antidotal jaw anaplasty in patients. The agreement of the adjoining accustomed maxillary and mandibular cartilage averaged 66.5% cartilage and 33.5% bendable tissue, advertence that the arrangement of hydroxyapatite/bone to bendable tissue/vascular amplitude is agnate to accustomed bone.17 The abstraction additionally approved that cartilage advance through the BBHA grafts was about complete in 4 months, with added progression of the healing action consistent in maturation of the ingrown bone. The grafts had beneath bendable tissue than the adjoining cartilage (30% bendable tissue) and cartilage acquaintance over 60% of their surfaces which is a near-balance amid the BBHA grafts and surrounding bone.16 There was no cogent aberration in micro acerbity ethics amid the cartilage in the BHA grafts and the adjoining maxillary bone.17 Cartilage ingrowth appeared to plateau at about 20 months, extensive an calm in which the about bulk of osseous tissue remained constant. 17

Different theories proposed on the apparatus of cartilage formation. Early vascularization followed by affiliation tissue formation16,43,44 cartilage gradually amid about the HA particles21,43,44 and non-inducing bit-by-bit substitution21,22 additionally proposed. Actual afresh the cartilage consecration has been apparent with nano-crystalline HA. The use of BBHA as an alloplastic grafting actual has several advantages over alternative types of grafts: no donor armpit anguish is involved, adjoining cartilage will not be resorbed, there is no accepted hypersensitivity or allowed response, the actuality is calmly manipulated, there are no alive time constraints, surgical time is decreased, claret accident is decreased, the aggregate is unlimited, and healing is faster consistent in a beneath accretion time. Interpositional cartilage grafting is adumbrated in orthognathic anaplasty to accommodate awkward continuity, advance healing, advance stability, abatement surgical backsliding in commonly abortive jaw repositioning movements during orthognathic surgical procedures. This blazon of about-face options will access the adaptation bulk and bottom morbidity.

The assimilation of autogeneous bone, platelet affluent plasma, rhBMP-2 showed acceptable cartilage formation.50 The studies accept apparent hydroxyapatite is osteoinductive.51,52 Afresh studies accept apparent use of Platelet acquired advance agency (PDGF), transforming advance agency β (TGF-β), BMP, and axis beef in cartilage regeneration.50 The BBHA will accommodate structural architectonics for BMP to accomplish bigger and beforehand function. These class concepts were admired a abstracted a few years ago, but now they accomplished analytic reality.53-59 Our address is anniversary in about-face of chain defects of mandible. Hydroxyapatite is a able biocompatible affix acting that does not account any abiding inflammatory, allergic, or baneful reaction. Results of both densitometric and radiographic studies appropriate that the use of constructed hydroxyapatite affix actual has the abeyant to advance cartilage accumulation in an economical way.60-63


The primary aim of the about-face was to accept a able face form, aesthetics and structural antithesis for face which has been accomplished in a actual economical way. Our plan to accept implant accurate prosthesis in the HA blocks in abreast approaching for these patients is planned. This blazon of about-face with indigenously advised and able block affix can answer the aim and cold of acknowledged about-face which is a applicable modality & economical. No analytic signs of ache were articular about the graft, no infection or ache was elicited aloft palpation.

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