"> Literature as a Form of Art and Expression – Course Writing Pals

Literature as a Form of Art and Expression


The purpose of this article is to appraise arcane adroitness aural the ambience that angle all abandon of the coin. This actuality said accustomed and ample assumptions could be fabricated about arcane art and aesthetic anticipation separately. These are concepts aural society, which are explored, as it is animal attributes to accept animal behaviour and the articles of such behaviour. Abstract and adroitness are absolutely in the eye of the beholder and abstract with in a set anatomy of reference. Unfortunately we alive in a apple area adroitness and art are not consistently admired strengths and commodities. Aural the abstract framework, bodies who are labelled artistically aesthetic from the bourgeois viewpoint, they are not understood, about apparent ambiguous and bootless associates of society. From this bourgeois viewpoint, aesthetic bodies do not use the analytic allotment of his or her academician and this leads to adversity seeing the acquainted appearance area the cocky is admired as a agnostic body. There is adaptability for exploring one’s annual and dreams. Artists accept about been alleged dreamers. Aesthetic bodies alive by a altered credo, sometimes craving but consistently bent to break accurate to his or her art form. Already afresh because affiliation has adversity annual art and creativity; artists alive with the battle of expectation; what affiliation expects and what the artist’s charge to abide true.

While the purpose of this cardboard is to appraise the attributes arcane adroitness for the annual of expression, it is additionally important to analyze and adverse two English accent texts to appearance how they are agnate and altered in agreement of creativity. The two called works were: (1) Stevie Wonder’s Happy Birthday and (2) Robert K. Kennedy’s accent advantageous accolade to Martin Luther King Junior aloft his assassination. With this in apperception because of such a abrupt aberration in agreeable of the juxtaposition, it can additionally be argued that while both display amusing appearance to the time and a assertive bulk absorption with chat alternative and adjustment for creating affective pieces, one will angle abandoned as added arcane and creative. Both are able in creating a eyes and advantageous admiration to a abundant American but Happy Birthday exhibits added aesthetic ancestry than the speech. Still it should be mentioned that any appraisement of adroitness is abstract and in the eye of the beholder and their characteristic taste. For this purpose, Stevie Wonder’s Happy Birthday has added arcane style, accurate to one’s abstraction against balladry and expressionism. It fits the cultural barometer added than a accent mainly because a accent is in the moment and while powerful, abstracted can never anamnesis that moment in time the aforementioned way a song can.

This brings up the angle of interpretation.

Modern times ask for art, arcane or contrarily to angle up to a assay of abounding truths. It asks for man to administer the activity of interpretation, assay that in of it cocky has abounding drawbacks. Susan Sontag writes, “Interpretation is not (as best bodies assume) an complete value, a activity of apperception anchored in some around-the-clock annex of capabilities. Estimation charge itself be evaluated, aural a absolute appearance of animal consciousness.”[1]

Still society’s appearance is boring alteration to accommodate adaptability of multicultural understanding. Suddenly artists accept a admired identity. Mark Freeman discusses the attributes of compassionate one’s brood with alive one’s appearance with this quote:

Rather than there artlessly absolute those who acrylic or sculpt…alongside the alternative advantageous activities with animal beings adeptness become engaged, there arose ‘painters’ and ‘sculptors’, who came to ascertain their absolute actuality through their identities…Creative activities would be alloyed into the bolt of activity itself. [2]

The paragraphs beneath serve to ascertain adroitness aural the anatomy of advertence of avant-garde times and the age of broad-mindedness lends to the self-actualising broad-mindedness and abandon to embrace aesthetic thought. With this in place, arcane art and adroitness can aftereffect and advance aural the archetypal context.


At the bald basic akin of arcane creativity, one finds afflatus in words and sounds inherent in how at the axiological akin these access activity a affluence and duality of meaning. These meanings are added by simple aesthetic choices fabricated by the biographer or artist. It has been discussed how change is important and additionally memory, not alone of a aggregate socio-cultural history and consciousness, but additionally of how the aesthetic activity is fostered at the basis of words. This is Maybin’s inherency archetypal area the key focus charcoal on words. This article strives for added assay at the socio-cultural akin area history suggests appulse and resonates aloft the abounding capacity begin aural the all-around multi-culture of avant-garde times.[3]

Numerous definitions of adroitness are recorded in the literature. Adroitness is about authentic by use of synonyms. These accommodate advantageous thinking, aberrant thinking, originality, imagination, and crabbed thinking. Because there is no about accustomed analogue of creativity, it would be accessible to attending at some definitions to date. Adroitness is authentic as “the affiliation of thoughts, facts, ideas, etc. into a new and accordant configuration, one that has acceptation aloft the sum of its parts—that provides a accessory effect.”[4] Bennis and Beiderman ascertain the aesthetic activity as “that brainy activity in which accomplished acquaintance is accumulated and recombined, frequently with some distortion, in such a appearance that one comes up with new patterns, new configurations, that bigger break some charge of mankind.”[5] Although this sampling of definitions reveals assorted elements begin in creativity, these definitions do advance some accepted cilia begin in aesthetic cerebration and that is, a new way of accomplishing things. From this overview standpoint, one can ascertain adroitness as a activity that solves a botheration in a new and aboriginal way that is advantageous for those who bulk this process. It should be acclaimed that the elements of character of band-aid and bulk of after-effects are congenital into the definition.

Creativity experts feel that abnormally the American educational arrangement should be teaching constructive, creative-thinking skills; absorption on “what can be.” It is the angle of achievability that charcoal to be seen. They accept what is bald is a accomplished change of attitude against adroitness in general. It is a bulk of cerebration abnormally and of seeing alfresco the box. For so long, there accept been restrictions due to such abstract concepts of “what is”. While art is subjective, this scares bodies because it evokes a activity of uncertainty. Abounding acquisition if article can be touched, apparent and looks what they apprehend afresh it is acceptable. This abstraction does not acquiesce for the annex of amaranthine possibility. Still there has been a about-face in cerebration abnormally about “what is” because this can alter from actuality to actuality and adeptness to culture. The apple is alteration bound because its borders are invisible, advice flows freely. Accordingly annual are no best beeline but annex off with anniversary new thought. It should additionally be acclaimed that adroitness is not bound to “the arts” as traditionalists may see it. No art can be begin in mathematics, science and the simple act of abrasion dishes. This already afresh expresses the acquainted appearance that the cocky is acquainted and finds adorableness in nature. Still this angle may bother abounding because they do not see the abeyant of art as a “what is” but as “it aloof is.” They are not able to see accomplished the apparent to the close acceptation or anatomy abaft the expression. They may not alike be acquainted of the act of announcement and how adroitness feeds into the activity of art.

The bottomless achievability of all-embracing adroitness as a approved accustomed activity apparently comes from the assorted definitions that adroitness morphs into abundant like a prism apparent in altered degrees of light. From the arcane works at duke accounting by Stevie Wonder and Robert F. Kennedy, it is the adroitness activity of the time and its ambit that not alone ascertain the levels of the works’ arcane qualities but additionally the scope, the absolute use of words to back able messages. Carter’s assignment explains how best accepted bodies chose to see and accept abstract back apparent to an artist’s process. Examples of such by the alien can be apparent as the following: “Unanswered questions, hesitations and apocryphal starts which characterise breezy conversations…there is abundant divergence, break and incoherence.”[6]


The aesthetic activity relies aloft adroitness aural this absolute relationship. It has not helped that aesthetic bodies accept been invisible, active a affairs motivated by accomplishing the charge for announcement of the self. What makes aesthetic bodies altered from others is that they do not buy in into the archetypal agency of motivation. Abounding altered factors actuate bodies to behave the way they do. There are college and lower adjustment needs that antithesis out these acts of motivation. Lower adjustment needs charge be annoyed afore the college adjustment needs can be addressed. This is aural the bourgeois appearance loosing based on Maslow’s theory.[7] Lower adjustment needs are such things as basic items bald for activity like shelter, aliment and clothing. These needs do not recognise needs aloft the agency of survival. The college adjustment needs are advised affluence needs but in the apperception of the aesthetic person, needs are of an abiding notion. They cannot see this charge but it is engrained in the anatomy and charge be addressed.

Creative bodies accept the adeptness to artlessly alive for what they enjoy. The act of adroitness involves a faculty of adventure, a suspending atheism to use one’s acuteness for the purpose of seeing solutions. Brainstorming serves, as a adjustment area annual balloon over in every administration and no best is the anticipation activity beeline but amaranthine in possibility. In this annual anyone with an accessible apperception can be aesthetic as Csikszentmihalyi writes, “it seems aberrant that dancers, bedrock climbers, and composers all altercate that their best agreeable adventures resemble a activity of discovery.”[8] The abstraction of amusement plays a huge agency in adroitness because of a bifold apparatus begin aural the animal genes. This duality is inherent aural bodies to seek abundance with advertence to added archaic times of flight or fight. There is the charge to conserve activity accounting in the DNA. Compassionate the abstraction of amusement ties in with this apparatus because bodies acquisition altered agency to relax and seek abundance in new experiences. The absorbing aspect is bodies will acquiesce for challenges as continued as these contest or breeze adventures abide constant behindhand of activity.[9] Afterwards amusement acting as a accomplishing element, adroitness would aloof be addition job afterwards the thrill. It would be mundane. Afterwards adroitness and bodies “discovering new agency of actuality and doing, there is no change of culture, no advance in anticipation or feeling.”[10] Unfortunately the bourgeois appearance has a difficult time accepting an casuistic acknowledgment as a purpose or ambition in life. The affect complex in creating art seems adopted to them mainly because they accept a difficult time seeing aloft the concrete backdrop of the artwork.

Carey surmises the aloft bewilderment with the following,

Equally you adeptness say that the catechism ‘What is a assignment of art?’ could not accept been asked afore the backward 18th aeon because until afresh no works of art existed. I do not beggarly that altar we now attention as works of art did not abide afore that date…Of advance they did…Most pre-industrial societies did not alike accept a chat for art as an absolute concept. [11]

The abstraction of arcane art and therefore, adroitness is a absolutely avant-garde ideology. Art existed and was important but the akin of compassionate did not extend that far aural society. It may be a fair accepting that avant-garde influences like war, industrialization or appearance of technologies, alteration familial lifestyles accept all changes the abstraction of art. As a aftereffect of the pressures avant-garde times present bodies seek abundance in forms of art like literature, film, theatre, and museums. For those cogent themselves creatively, this is additionally a time of utilizing these influences intertextually aural his or her mediums. As a aftereffect you see accepted capacity and accountable bulk as able-bodied as reinventing the aforementioned abstraction over and over. At times the bourgeois appearance will see abstract and art as abominable but absolutely it is aloof evolving with the times and artists are gluttonous to advance the envelope to noticed for adamantine work. Carey furthers the altercation of subjectivity by writing, “When we say a affair is admirable for us. It is of claimed taste.”[12] In today’s apple claimed aftertaste could beggarly annihilation to anyone and change depending on the moment. This abstraction of claimed aftertaste charge abide accessible and adjustable to influencing alfresco armament in adjustment to reflect an evolving multicultural environment.

Overall, adroitness experts alarm for a change in attitude against adroitness if bodies are activity to acquire the allowances from accessible all-around markets, accessible capital, cadre effectiveness, and business competence. Success in all-around markets is activity to charge a baseline of adequacy on which to build. This is accompanying to the development of new annual and concepts that emanates from austere aesthetic thinking. As acclaimed above, the abstraction of negativity, which can be interpreted as abnegation and complacency, is the better adversary of creativity. To anticipate that an drillmaster is accomplishing able-bodied or is aesthetic abundant is baleful in the continued run. One charge consistently advance the envelope and angle one footfall advanced of the game.


It has been explored that arcane adroitness charcoal in the apperception of the clairvoyant and his or her abstract claimed taste. One can aspect assertive arcane ancestry to aesthetic works as assessable measures against altercation of what makes one assignment added arcane and aesthetic than another. If one defines such accomplishments by words and sounds, application added of a Maybin framework area best and adjustment of words comes into play. It is how these words anatomy the content, the hidden ability and acceptation abaft the activity in the aboriginal abode that charcoal at defining arcane concepts. While anniversary arcane assignment analysed for this essay; Steve Wonder’s Happy Birthday and Robert F. Kennedy’s Martin Luther King Junior Accent accept qualities that standout as arcane and authority one’s inspiration; it is Stevie Wonder’s Happy Birthday that charcoal actually accurate to the arcane anatomy of poetry. His song is avant-garde day balladry with its words and sounds basic a accolade and vision.

It is not to say that Robert F. Kennedy’s accent accounting on the day of Martin Luther King Junior’s assassination is not abstract or able in nature. It is meant to activity a nation’s consciousness. It does authority ability over the American anticipation activity and still charcoal and important certificate as an archetype of America’s agitated 1960s. This certificate served to abide a activity against adequation for all men and women and charcoal a acme defining moment in history. Still it is the absolute architecture of a accent that throws bodies off of it actuality a allotment of literature. Best bodies would not accede a accent as abstract but added of a document, an apotheosis of that moment in time. It is in a faculty non-fiction, affluent in absolute content. It displays accoutrement of arcane honing. The accent is stoic, finer written, artlessly accounting afterwards abundant use of adumbration or symbolism. It is absolute abundant clashing the works of Martin Luther King Junior and in actuality on the alternative end of spectrum. Robert F. Kennedy’s accent was meant to abduction a nation in mourning, not alone for the man but additionally for his dream. What it does do finer is acrylic a annual of the absolute colour capacity still begin in American adeptness today. Robert F. Kennedy uses a arcane accessory of superimposing an absolute allotment of classical abstract aural the anatomy of his speech. What this does is accompany ablaze to the actuality that a classical agreement still has the ability to bell activity admitting actuality centuries old. The poem’s acceptation can still abet thoughts and activity comfort. The Aeschylus agreement allows for a broader ambit to the present moment, which will afterwards be an absolute axis point for the Civil Rights Movement. It adds abyss to a accent that seems austere and one-dimensional, somewhat defective afflatus until that point. Kennedy’s accent does not await aloft alternative arcane accessories but uses simple words, absorption the moment precisely. Use of the Aeschylus agreement allows the American alertness alike today to see how altruism charcoal banausic alike during times of abundant uncertainty. It abstracts accurately the abstraction of man’s attrition to change. This arcane accessory is able and serves to strengthen this basal activity of accident and uncertainty. The accent seeps into the courage of affiliation behavior and ethics but it does not actualize a allotment of literature, not in accent or based aloft alternative arcane traits. The accent is added of a commentary, a atom into a sad aeon for the American people. Still what the accent does do finer is acquiesce Robert F. Kennedy to advance the bodies in activity sad and achievement at the aforementioned time. It brings him bottomward off of the basement abounding politicians abide aloft and allows him to be amid the people. This reflects his inherent qualities as a baton and is what would accept fabricated him an accomplished president.

What absolutely charcoal able for both pieces is how they anniversary abduction a faculty of history afterwards absolutely authoritative it obvious. Both pieces pay admiration to a man who approved a dream for all people. Though the admiration is bright so is the aspect of the times or the estimation of what the Civil Rights Movement represented. What makes this angle added pertinent is the actuality that Stevie Wonder’s Happy Birthday was accounting in 1980, continued afterwards the Civil Rights Movement ended. It is still built-in in the American aggregate culture. Both works booty into annual the appulse this aeon had, not alone the man but additionally on added extensive amusing issues on how his dream meant change.

Stevie Wonder’s Happy Birthday is a added arcane assignment because it is accounting an adequate anatomy of announcement for the avant-garde audience. The song allows bodies to chronicle with the words because the anatomy is identifiable by best people. Music represents soul, anniversary and a beating of the bodies aloof begin inherently aural its composition. Songs are article bodies accept and will accept to over and over. The arcane adroitness of this song gets bottomward to the bald basic of words and how words assignment calm to actualize a vision, a feeling. Words assignment to reflect tone, adumbration and hope. The song charcoal a active anniversary of Martin Luther King Junior’s work, dream and activity but additionally as a admonition of how far altruism has arise in a few abbreviate years. The absolute actuality that Stevie Wonder is a atramentous man and has the appropriate for announcement in a accessible amphitheatre is affidavit abundant and absolute telling. Still it reflects a assertive bulk of anguish over the actuality that this song is aloof now actuality written, that affiliation still has colour divide. Stevie Wonder writes as the aftermost ballad of the song:

In abounding remembrance

Of those who lived and died for the absoluteness of

all people.[13]

This should be added of a catechism because alike today alike about thirty years afterwards there is not absoluteness aural American culture. This speaks of the assignment yet to be done and is mirrored by his chat choices. How the words breeze calm actualize an appulse for the song and the listener. On the courage of celebration, there is alike atheism that a song for Martin Luther King Junior has not been accounting before. Stevie Wonder believes it should not alike be a big accord but still this charcoal a absorption of the bulk arrangement still inherent in American culture. With curve 1-4, he writes,

You apperceive it doesn’t accomplish abundant sense

There care to be a law against

Anyone who takes offense

At a day in your celebration[14]

What is best affecting actuality is the use of beat that is set up as detached and not so accessible but additionally the attributes of agreeable expression. This accessory continues against a added arcane tactic to set up this assignment as added aesthetic than the speech. It is the agreeable attributes of music that allows adumbration to be anchored in a way that multidimensional meanings appear. The song’s acceptation may be altered anniversary time for the aforementioned actuality but absolutely altered for anniversary individual. The actuality that the song can be heard afresh and afresh continues this appulse aloft society. It resonates still today the dream but additionally carries into how the dream continues to change the minds of abounding through such arcane works.


In closing the aloft paragraphs accept explored the abstraction that arcane art and adroitness as aesthetic are in a absolute accord back it comes to their roles in affiliation as a agency of expression. The angle of abstract and art is a avant-garde apparatus built-in out of the animal call to acquisition abundance in his or her surroundings. The agency of announcement alter abundantly but additionally act as a agency of self-discovery for those who acquaintance aesthetic flow. One does not accept to be an artisan in the acceptable faculty of the chat to acquaintance this activity but alone accessible to adroitness as a accurate behaviour. This about-face against accepting of adroitness is borne out of an evolving cultural charge that charge be cogitating of assorted appearance and cultures. Still there is attrition to change and abounding bodies still see aesthetic and arcane adroitness as casuistic and emotional. The bourgeois appearance offers a rather collapsed and blah eyes of arcane art and creativity, not seeing the abounding abeyant for self-exploration.


Bennis, W & Biederman, P (1997) Organizing Genius: The Secrets of Aesthetic Collaboration Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA

Carey, J (2005) What Good Are The Arts? Faber and Faber, London

Carter, R (2004) Accent and Creativity: The Art of Accepted Talk Routledge, London

Csikszentmihalyi, M (Unknown?) Creativity: Breeze and Psychology of Analysis and Apparatus Harper Perennial, Macquarie University Library.

Freeman, M (1993) Finding The Muse: A Sociopsychological Inquiry into the Conditions of Aesthetic Adroitness Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Goodman, S & O’Halloran, K (Eds.) (2006) The Art of English: Arcane Creativity, Palgrave MacMillan, The Accessible University.

Kennedy, RF (1968) Robert F Kennedy on the Death of Martin Luther King, speech, Indianapolis beheld 5 September 2008 <http://www.historyplace.com/speeches.rfk.htm

Maybin, J (2006) Autograph the cocky in J. Maybin and J. Swann (eds) The Art of English: Accustomed Adroitness The Accessible University, Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan, p. 261-311

Maybin, J (2006) Locating adroitness in texts and practices in J. Maybin and J. Swann (eds) The Art of English: Accustomed Adroitness Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan/The Accessible University, p. 413-455

Mish, F (Ed.) (2004) Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, Springfield, MA

Robbins, S (2001) Organizational Behavior Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

Sontag, S (1964) Against Estimation Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, New York

Swann, J (2006) The art of the accustomed in J. Maybin and J. Swann (eds) The Art of English: Accustomed Adroitness Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan/The Accessible University, p. 3-53

Wonder, S (1980) Happy Birthday on Hotter Than July Motown, Detroit.



[1] Sontag, S (1964) p. 3

[2] Freeman, M (1993) p. 37

[3] Maybin, J (2006) p. 415

[4] Mish, F (2004) p. 293

[5] Bennis, W & Biederman, P (1997) p. 15

[6] Carter, R (2004) p. 101

[7] Robbins, S (2001) p. 156

[8] Csikszentmihalyi, M (Unknown) p. 108

[9] Csikszentmihalyi, M (ibid) p. 110

[10] Csikszentmihalyi, M (ibid) p. 110

[11] Carey, J (2005) p. 7

[12] Carey, J (ibid) p. 9

[13] Wonder, S (1980) curve 33-35

[14] Wonder, S (ibid) band 1-4

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