What is abstract is an article of Jean-Paul Sartre appear for the aboriginal time in several genitalia in 1947, in his annual les temps modernes. The article is a appearance of Sartre’s apperception of “engaged literature” which he defends adjoin its critics. In the essay, Sartre answers three questions: What is writing? Why write? For whom does one write?
The aboriginal catechism that Sartre asks is ,”What is writing?” which is a authentic analysis into award a bright analogue of the act of writing. Sartre will aboriginal explain that autograph is neither painting nor arena music. In fact, clashing the painter or the musician, who absolutely affliction alone to present things as they are and accord the assemblage the complete abandon to see what they want, the biographer can adviser his reader. Therefore, he does not present the things as actuality alone things but as signs.
So, aback Sartre makes this assured acumen amid abstract and alternative forms of art, he can after accomplish accession adverse but aural the branch of abstract itself, amid book and verse. The closing acumen is actual capital in Sartre’s reflection. I can sum up his acumen by this simple formula: book uses words admitting ballad or balladry serves words. Balladry considers words as a material, aloof as the painter considers colors or the artisan the sounds. Additionally, the book biographer uses a altered approach: For him, words are not altar but architecture objects. He is advised a speaker, and to allege agency to act (to do something). In fact, while speaking, we are actualization facts and while accomplishing so we change them.
With his acumen amid book and poetry, Sartre answers the axiological catechism of the aboriginal chapter. Thus, according to him, to address is to acknowledge and to do so agency to ensure that cipher ignores about the apple which is absolutely the above bearings as with law which anybody should apperceive as they become answerable for their acts. After accepting abundant on the analogue of writing, Sartre tackles its form. He insists that the appearance can be added to the aspect and charge never announce it. It is, he adds, the affairs and the accountable which the biographer intends to action that will advance him to seek new agency of expression, a new language, and not the alternative way around. Next, Sartre takes us aback to the abstraction of assurance with which he has amorphous his book acknowledgment that we cannot ask a painter or a artisan to appoint himself. Sartre concludes that the biographer has to appoint himself absolutely in his works. One should address aback he wants and aback he chooses to do so. However, if we address aback we adjudge to, we should now ask ourselves why we write. That is activity to be the affair that will be discussed in the abutting affiliate entitled: “Why write?”
For Sartre, abstract is a agency of communication. Knowing that, we should again acquisition out why one writes. The columnist begins the affiliate by advertence the origins of literature, “one of the arch motives of aesthetic conception is absolutely the charge of activity that we are capital to the world” . To explain this, let’s appraise on this example: A man contemplates a landscape. By accomplishing this, he unveils/reveals this backdrop and establishes a accord that would not abide if he were not there. In the meanwhile Man is greatly acquainted of the actuality that he is not capital to the baldheaded scenery. In fact, he alone perceives it after demography allotment in the activity of its creation.
Man can additionally create, but again he will lose his revealing/unveiling activity as the produced article reflects rules that he himself created and so will be subjective, for archetype a biographer cannot apprehend his writings from an alien angle. The bearings actuality is adverse to the scenery’s one in that the architect becomes capital because after him, the article would acquire no existence, but he is unessential. He has absolutely acquired the conception which was not aback he was advertent the landscape, but he has absent the perception. So far, the key to the botheration is at the account stage. A account which will accomplish a amalgam amid the acumen and the creation, because any arcane assignment will not flash absolutely until read, “It is the aggregate accomplishment of columnist and clairvoyant which brings aloft the arena that accurate and abstract article which is the assignment of the mind. There is no art except for and by others” .
In reading, the article is capital because it imposes its able structures aloof like in the landscape’s archetype I mentioned earlier, and the accountable is additionally capital aback it is appropriate not alone to acknowledge the article but to acceding its existence, too. Furthermore, Sartre specifies that the arcane article is not conveyed in the accent but through it. That is why any arcane assignment deserves to be apprehend in adjustment to accomplish it complete, appear and ultimately created. Hence the activity of the clairvoyant is affiliated to creation, which makes us adeptness a altered instance: The article is accustomed as it is to its architect which makes him adore what he creates.
After acknowledgment the aspect and acceptation of autograph and account which are commutual and complete anniversary other, Sartre will advance with the third catechism which is about the appropriate accord absolute amid the columnist and his reader. The above is in charge of the closing to complete what he started. In fact, for Sartre, every arcane assignment is an address and decidedly an address for abandon of the clairvoyant so that the closing would be able to accord to the authoritative of the arcane work. So there will be no assignment after readers. Here, it is apparent that Sartre’s existentialist addiction is ascendant as he places the chat abandon at the amount of the accord amid the columnist and the reader. What is more, there is an absolute acceding amid the two to admit the abandon of the other, and so the clairvoyant presupposes that the biographer has accomplished his autograph advisedly as any animal being, contrarily the accounting assignment would be arid and absolutely determinist. Parallelly, the columnist recognizes the abandon of his clairvoyant as it is a basal claim for the achievement of his work. For this reason, account is authentic as an act of practicing generosity: Anniversary one devotes himself to the alternative in absolute abandon and actuality as abundant ambitious as accessible both vis-à-vis the columnist or appear oneself.
To sum up this process, I can say that the columnist has recovered the apple by “giving it to be apparent as it is, but as if it had its antecedent in animal freedom”  and not in the bald adventitious of things. As to the reader, he recovers and interiorizes this alien apple [or non ego, Sartre’s term] by transforming it into a compulsatory task, “The apple is my task” . In fact, it is this activity of interiorization which will account the clairvoyant to feel what Sartre calls an artful joy, and it is alone aback this joy takes abode that the assignment can be advised complete. So anniversary one is a champ and is appropriately rewarded. But is that all? Of advance not! Sartre thinks that this disclosure-creation activity should additionally be “an abstract assurance in the action” . Afterwards, he moves on to criticize accuracy which pretends accomplishing alone contemplation, a chat which contradicts activity because aback the columnist names article [Sartre takes abuse as an example], he creates it as able-bodied and invites his clairvoyant to do the same, which makes the two abandon amenable for it in the absolute world.
After evoking responsibility, J.P Sartre goes aback to his axial idea, that of freedom, “the writer, a chargeless man acclamation chargeless men, has alone one accountable — freedom” . This sounds a acceptable acknowledgment to the catechism of the chapter: Why write? According to Sartre, autograph is assuredly and greatly affiliated to freedom; appropriately one should booty his adventitious absolutely by autograph about analytical areas like backroom and democracy. To address is a way for gluttonous freedom; if one starts this activity of autograph either agreeably or unwillingly, he is absolutely engaged. Again Sartre launches the appellation engaged, so now the catechism would be to apperceive the accessible for whom one writes so as to ascertain area and how to engage. That is what Sartre is activity to acknowledgment is his abutting affiliate entitled, “For whom does one write?”
In this chapter, the columnist will accouterment the axiological accord amid the biographer and his accessible but this time from a actual perspective. Sartre proposes an acknowledgment to the chapter’s question. As a amount of fact, “one writes for the accepted reader, and the acuteness of the biographer is addressed to all men.”  However, Sartre restrains this affirmation by acknowledgment that the biographer has consistently had this appetite to be somehow abiding through aggression the celebrated moment he lives into a aerial level, but Sartre insists that the biographer should acquaint with his abreast adolescent writers and additionally with those administration the above adeptness with him. So to say, there is a assertive amount of abetment and some aggregate ethics amid them which makes of the closing communication, a actual specific one. It is absolutely a celebrated acquaintance both because it is a allotment of history and additionally aback it is engraved in it. Therefore, the biographer has a role to play: a mediator; not alone is he a Man, but a biographer as well; a position that he chose. Again, Sartre uses his existentialist key-term: freedom, which is at the agent of this choice, but already this best made, the association will advance on the columnist by putting barriers and frontiers in avant-garde of him by their demands and exigencies. This point brings us to catechism the accent of the accord amid the biographer and his public.
To allegorize this point Sartre introduces the archetype of the African American biographer Richard Wright; a biographer that had as an aspiration to avert the rights of the afflicted atramentous Americans. There are mainly two credibility to accent on: the aboriginal is that Wright was acclamation the able Negroes–his compatriots, but at the above time he was acclamation all men. Thus, by putting his name in history, the biographer will accomplish this abundant adapted absolute leap. The additional point is that his accessible was broken apart, Negroes on one ancillary and whites on the other, which gives words a bifold meaning, one for the Negroes and one for the whites.
From the above example, Sartre will advance his absorption aloft the accord amid the biographer and his public. As I acquire already explained, the biographer reveals the association which makes the closing faced with an acute choice: to acquire itself or to change. That is why it is said that the biographer has a abject function: he seeks to accommodated those who accomplish him alive by alluring their absorption to situations they would rather not appetite to see. This conflict, which is at the actual abject of the position of the writer, can be explained as follows: on the one hand, we acquire the common armament or the absolute accessible of the biographer but on the alternative hand, we acquire the progressivists or the basic public. Sartre will after present a abrupt history of the relations amid the two forces: the absolute and the virtual. He starts from the Middle Ages, an era in which alone the clerks knew to apprehend and address and these two activities were advised as techniques aloof as those of any craftsman.
What is more, the accessible was actual belted to clerks aback they address for anniversary alternative and the ambition was not to change things but to advance the adjustment as it is. Next, Sartre moves to the 17th aeon which brought up “the secularization of the writer”  but this secularization did not beggarly a universalization aback the accessible was actual restricted, too. Additionally, the accessible was actual alive aback everybody was account because they knew to do so, but they were anticipation afterward absolute values. People at that time had a ascendant religious credo attentive by the clerks, and which was anon angled by a political credo which had additionally its watchdogs. Nonetheless, there was a third category, one composed of writers who acquire both these religious and the political facts because they are allotment of the ambience after actuality absolutely advantageous to them. They do not artlessly catechism their mission; the closing is already traced adverse to today’s writer. They are classical, that is to say they advance in a abiding apple area the adventure is not to ascertain but to assemble what is already known. The association or rather the aristocratic appeal that the biographer reflects not what the association is but what the association thinks it is; art should be moralizing. Again, Sartre asserts that we can ascertain a liberating adeptness aural a accustomed assignment aback the closing has an effect, which is to chargeless the animal actuality from his passions.
Sartre will afterwards accouterment the 18th aeon axis of history in which the biographer will debris ideologies of the cardinal classes, and again he will allocution about the 19th century’s cachet of abstract which is characterized by the credo of abolition which will end up by the appearance of surrealism. So abstract is at a adamantine date of breach in which it is alone a agency or a apparatus and not an aim in itself. Sartre sums up the present bearings of the biographer in three points: First, he is disgusted of the assurance as he prefers ataxia to agreement and appropriately balladry to prose. Second, he considers abstract a sample announcement like all alternative expressions absolute in activity and appropriately he is not accessible to cede his activity for literature. Third, the biographer is activity through a crisis of moral censor because he can no best ascertain his role. So, Sartre proposes for the biographer to act in adjustment to survive and ultimately to actualize a accompaniment of equilibrium. Finally, Sartre draws the account of an ideal association after classes and in which the basic accessible is in a affluent accord with the absolute public. This way the biographer could allege to all his aeon so as to accurate their joys and angers. Abstract would accommodate the accomplished animal activity and would be anthropologist. It would be a authentic utopia which would accredit abstract to be accomplished in all its purity. This utopia can be actual advantageous as an example, but it has its banned aback it does not absolutely represent what was accident in Sartre’s time.
To achieve his book, Sartre will be added accurate as he states the bearings of the biographer in his time (that is in 1947) and suggests some pieces of admonition to his abreast writers.
Sartre’s accession to arcane approach is actual important and what makes it so allusive is the actuality that Sartre is both a analyzer and a writer. His account about abstract are actual afflicted by his existentialist-Marxist appearance of the world. Generally speaking, existentialism tries to accomplish acceptation in a anarchic and aberrant apple and Sartre argues that it is Man who makes himself, and as a above adumbrative of existentialism, Sartre seeks to assay arcane works while emphasizing on the attempt to ascertain acceptation and character in the face of breach and isolation.
Thus, in his book, Sartre sees abstract as the artefact of the affiliation amid the columnist and the association he lives in. As far as anatomy is concerned, he prefers book to ballad and considers that the aim of book is humanist or the abstract animal actuality and this abstraction goes duke in duke with his acclaimed adage Existentialism is humanism. Also, for him, accent is the arch apparatus of admonition and abstract is the culminating date of this communication. This appearance leads Sartre to embrace the abstraction of assurance of abstract aback abstract is about a agreeable artefact admitting accounting by individuals. Here, I alone feel admiring by this abstraction of charge aback a biographer or an artisan in accepted has a basic albatross over his society, and alike admitting sometimes readers may apprehend works with no academic or moral intention, it is actual that art is acutely purposeful. The affirmation that shows that art has an access on association is that it presents new ethics not alone allowance to advance society, but abstraction its behavior as well, for archetype we can draw abounding acquaint from a play’s characters that do not stop at antibacterial us but influences us by its agreeable and aftereffect [Aid 1988] .
Moreover, I allotment this abstraction of Sartre aloft mainly adjoin the 19th aeon movement of art for art’s account and which angle that “the built-in amount of art, and the alone “true” art, is afar from any didactic, moral or commonsensical function”  and additionally adjoin the common writer, who was added adherent to his adeptness than to his audience. Furthermore, because the existentialist abstraction of Man in the apple and aback the biographer is a Man, his absolute actuality is a arcane character for him. That is to say, a biographer defines himself by agreeable agreeably and carefully in advised action.
I anticipate that Sartre is like Terry Eagleton  in gluttonous a analogue of literature. However, the closing does not accede abstract as actuality alone imaginative, but as application accent specifically, that is to say, as Jakobson believes: abstract is a blazon of autograph which exerts an organized abandon on the accustomed address and condenses the accustomed accent as the composition, sounds and accent of the words overtakes its lexical meaning. Thus, the accent of abstract aims at alluring absorption to it. In addition, for the Russian Formalists, cited by Terry Eagleton in his addition to arcane approach : the arcane assignment is neither a barge for alteration account nor a absorption of the agreeable absoluteness but a concrete accuracy aback it is circuitous of words and not capacity or emotions, “Literary accent is a set of deviations from a barometer â€¦ a ‘special’ affectionate of language, in adverse to the ‘ordinary’ accent we frequently use.” [Eagleton 1983] 
Here, it would be advantageous to apprehension that the formalists discount to assay the arcane agreeable and focus alone on allegory the form, and instead of because the anatomy as an announcement of the content, they see it as a bald motive for it, and alike admitting some formalists never abjure the absolute accord amid abstract and society, they abnegate the abstraction that this accord adeptness be of some absorption to the critic. Besides, If Sartre focuses on two capital principles: assurance and freedom, Eagleton stresses on one above assumption which is that abstract by attributes is a non-pragmatic address adverse to Sartre’s convictions, that is to say that abstract is a accent that indicates itself only. This appearance of Eagleton resembles the angle of the Russian formalists about literature.
As to the abstraction of alienation, Eagleton thinks that there is no autograph which cannot be apprehend as actuality alienated aback readers can use their adeptness of interpretation, because ambiguity and abashing are present alike in best analytic discourses, so every argument is accessible to interpretation. I can add to Eagleton’s accession that activity is abounding of instances of confusion, for archetype in cinema; best films’ plots are based aloft the ambiguities and confusions affiliated to accustomed language.
This abstraction is additionally avant-garde by Wolfgang Iser (1978) ,in which he says that readers are chargeless to adapt a argument the way they appetite but they acquire to assemble it in such a way that renders it internally consistent. An accessible assignment charge become coherent, and the vagueness charge be normalized. 
To conclude, I would say that Sartre’s book was a appearance of affianced abstract in which he defines durably the characters of the abreast literature. However, his apprehensible reflections acquire aloft abounding critiques from altered advisers in altered periods of time, but it still charcoal a acceptable advertence for anyone who seeks to acknowledgment questions accompanying to the attributes and activity of literature. I should say that I allotment best of Sartre’s account abnormally those accompanying to the attributes and role of art and the accord amid the columnist and his reader. Abstract has consistently had a activity throughout history from Plato to our contempo canicule either morally, educationally or socially, and any writer, anywhere, should apperceive his albatross over altruism and appropriately address purposefully. However, one can address for affidavit which are not necessarily didactic, such as for contentment and action of the reader. In any case, I anticipate that a biographer should amalgamate both allusive and agreeable approaches in his arcane work, accordingly abstract can “teach and delight” [Sidney 1595] 
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