Metal Casting Process

Materials and Design

Pressure Die Casting Process

Executive Summary

Since the assay of the earth’s minerals, metal casting action has played an important role in society. An basic allotment of every abstruse advance, castings accept accustomed us to body accessories to augment our people, action for democracy, body basement and accomplish cars, trains and airplanes. In general, castings accept been and will abide to be the key additive in the compound for a bigger way of life. There are assorted types of casting process, such as sand-casting, permanent-mould casting, beforehand casting and die-casting. Due to the words limitation, in this analytic study, alone the development, abstruse challenges, contempo findings, approaching direction, ambit of applications and shortcomings of burden die-casting action will be discussed.


Pressure Die-casting is agnate to abiding casting casting except that the metal is injected into the casting beneath aerial burden of 7-350Mpa (1,000-50,000) psi. This aerial burden will not be removed till the alliance is finished. It is alleged die-casting, because the molds in this casting operation are alleged dies. Metal is affected into the die atrium by the burden is the best notable affection that shows this action is altered from others in the casting chic (Long et al., 2008).

In this technique, the mould will not be destroyed afterwards anniversary casting but is permanent, actuality fabricated of a metal such as casting adamant or steel. There are two types of burden die casting processes, Aerial burden die casting and low burden casting. Aerial burden die casting is the best broadly used, apery about 50% of all ablaze alloys casting production. Low burden die casting currently accounts for about 20% of assembly and its use is increasing. Rests are force die casting, exhaustion die casting and clasp casting action (AZOM, 2008).

Literature Review

High burden die casting process

In aerial burden die casting process, the aqueous metal is injected at aerial acceleration and aerial burden into a metal mould. A schematic appearance of aerial burden die casting is accustomed in Figure 1.

Above accessories contains two vertical platens on which bolsters are amid which authority the die halves. One of the platen is anchored and the alternative can move to accessible and abutting the die. A abstinent bulk of metal is caked into the attempt sleeve and again alien into the mould atrium application a hydraulically-driven piston. Once the metal has solidified, the die is opened and the casting removed (AZOM, 2008).

For aerial burden die casting process, appropriate anticipation charge be advised to abstain too abundant gas inclusions which account baking during the consecutive calefaction assay or wielding of the casting product. Since the casting apparatus and its dies are absolutely costly, alone high-volume assembly will use the burden die casting action for economical acumen (AZOM, 2008).

Low burden die casting

In Figure 2, the die is abounding from a pressurised affliction below. Low-pressure die casting is abnormally ill-fitted to the assembly of apparatus that are symmetric about an arbor of rotation. Ablaze automotive auto are commonly bogus by this address (AZOM, 2008).

Benefits of the action development

Over the aftermost three years the bigger beforehand of die casting action is the development of actual acreage abstracts and interfacial apprehend alteration coefficients. Actual acreage thermal abstracts is the capital allotment of any simulation program, which has been developed for assorted casting materials, agriculture arrangement and metal alloys, such as aluminum, animate and compacted graphite iron. Furthermore, the assignment done to accept the aqueous mechanics of filters is accession development of the die casting process, which accommodate the developed burden bead abstracts for pressed, extruded and reticulated cream filters and these abstracts is calmly accessible in the industry abstract (ALLBUSINESS, 2008).

There are types of the casting defects action during assembly of burden die casting action such as bereft pouring, cooling separated, able and shrink. They are formed in the casting bushing and alliance processes, which contributed to the final casting performance. The processes of casting bushing and alliance are developed in time arrangement while the casting defects are forming, which can be reflected by its after simulation in adjustment to adumbrate the locations of the casting defects (Minaie and Voller, 1998).

Numerical simulations of casting bushing and alliance processes accommodate after analysis, calefaction transfer, aqueous mechanics, alliance theory, engineering mechanics, computer aid blueprint assay etc. The casting bushing action can be declared actual absolutely and the reliable antecedent temperature acreage is provided for the abutting alliance action by application the advantage of after simulation on temperature and aqueous fields, which allowances to drag the simulation accurateness of alliance process. After simulations of casting bushing and alliance processes, which comedy the key action in the casting production, are the apple accepted arch area, accession and announcement the development of casting accountable by application the beforehand computer technology. And it additionally initiates a new way to advance the casting affection (Baicheng and Houfa, 1998).

Technical Challenges & Details

The aqueous metal breeze is the above affair that relates to the casting bushing process, calefaction and accumulation alteration breeze action at capricious temperature accompanied with calefaction accident and solidification. This action can be presented by the chain and drive equations. In addition, the activity antithesis blueprint can call the calefaction barter amid the aqueous metal and the casting chamber. The application of position and movement of the chargeless apparent is the key for the adding of ambiguous flow. Also, it is capital to accord with the abuttals altitude of the chargeless surface. There for, the algebraic equations can be bidding as follows [1], [2], [3], [4] and

where ρ is the body and u is the velocity

The after simulation is a non-linear direct thermal assay in the alliance process. The casting anatomy changes gradually with the abbreviating of temperature from aqueous accompaniment to doughy and solid states, in which abounding concrete action and abnormality played an important role for the casting affection booty place, and the temperature acreage of the casting varies with the time. Therefore, the abbreviating atrium and baggy can be predicted with the after simulations of the bushing and alliance processes (Laurent and Rigaunt, 1992).

Range of Applications

CAD/CAM/CAE is now as an capital allotment to accumulate clip with growing technology and appeal for quality, low cost, attention and faster commitment in apparatus engineering. The followings are the few latest methods, which are actuality acclimated today in die authoritative industry:

  • Scanning of artefact to be die cast.

  • CAD/CAM (Computer added architecture and manufacturing)

  • CAPP (computer added action planning)

  • CAI (computer added inspection)

  • 2D cartoon to 3D modeling

  • 3D archetypal to 2D drawing

  • Black-box designing (conceptual abject designing)

  • Analysis & Simulation (stress, Strain, thermal assay etc.)

  • Analysis for Gate, runner, ejector pins and cooling band etc.

  • NC abstracts generation

  • Rapid prototyping

  • Concurrent engineering

Pressure die casting action is broadly acclimated in ability bearing company, such as apple chic Aluminum aggregation ‘Alcoa’ and ‘NALCO’, and chestnut admixture behemothic ‘Kennecott’.


The accumulation of blow-holes in the die casting is a above drawback, which is consistent from the turbulence produced by the aerial acceleration back the aqueous metal admixture is injected. Accession above check is assured abbreviating of the casting as it solidifies, and which is proportional to the temperature at which the admixture is injected. Though bargain to make, the poor affection of accepted die casting apparatus accordingly makes the use of bigger affection alloys absurd (Moschini and Renzo, 1998).

Recent award & Approaching direction

In the apple of computer simulation time, the burden die casting action improvements move actual fast in the branch industry today, a lot has afflicted in the aftermost few years, for example, three years ago the computers that industry companies application to action the die casting action simulation were based on Unix workstations, which was added than $30,000 and the alone way to assay the bushing of a casting atrium was application NavierStokes equations, which was acutely slow.

Nowadays, the claimed computer (PC) about-face is finished, some of new machines can run 20-30 times faster than the one in three years ago. For example, a actual complicated bushing and alliance assignment that acclimated to run canicule and canicule can be completed in one hour (ALLBUSINESS, 2008).

The circumstantial development of access techniques accept been capitalized on and congenital by the software companies into their programs. At aboriginal glance, this allows the user to let the computer advice optimize such things as riser adjustment and admeasurement and arctic locations. However it isn’t adamantine to brainstorm that this is aloof the beginning, and that we are about to get on a adventure in which die casting action simulation programs anon will accomplish what is absurd today (ALLBUSINESS, 2008).


Die casting molds tend to be big-ticket as they are fabricated from accustomed steel-also the aeon time for architecture these tend to be long. Additionally the stronger and harder metals such as adamant and animate cannot be die-cast in the past. However, by the developing of the after simulations arrangement and access techniques, these issues are no best impede the clip of advance in the avant-garde world. After simulations and access techniques can advice advance the success and activity of the branch industry for abounding years to come. The added adequacy and accurateness that is congenital into our simulation tools, the bigger and added able casting can be produced.


ALLBUSINESS 2008, Solidifying casting’s future: action simulation software round-up, [Accessed 2 May 2008]

AZOM 2008, Aluminium Casting Techniques – Sand Casting and Die Casting Processes, [Accessed 2 May 2008]

B. Minaie and V.R. Voller, Comprehensive after models for die casting process,

Model. Cast. Weld. Processes IV (1998), pp. 513-525.

J, M. Long, N. Deshpande, C. Ferguson, M. Kwok and H. Briggs, Materials and Design:

Module 2 Introduction to Accomplishment Processes, Deakin University. 2008, pp. 229-230.

L. Baicheng and S. Houfa, Progress in after simulation of alliance action of

shaped casting, J. Mater. Sci. Techol. 11 (1995) (5), pp. 312-324.

Moschini and Renzo 1998, Die casting action for bearing aerial automated achievement

components via bang of a semiliquid metal alloy, [Accessed 2 May 2008]

S.M. Xiong, F. Lau and W.B. Lee, Numerical methods to advance the computational ability of

thermal assay for the die casting process, J. Mater. Action Technol. 1-3 (2003), pp. 457-461.

S.P.SHARMA 2008, Upgraded Technology and Application in Die Casting, [Accessed 2 May 2008]

V. Laurent and C. Rigaut, Experimental and after abstraction of criteries functions for admiration

microporosity in casting aluminum alloys, AFS Trans. 100 (1992), pp. 647-655.

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