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The Term Comparative Advertising Marketing Essay

In the liberalized Indian economy, as access into assembly and casework is no added a barrier, the advance of antagonism has confused to advancing and active advance of articles and services. These practices accession questions about artlessness and candor of representation of articles and services. In a aggressive environment, every representation of a artefact or service, is about what ‘others are not’. In this sense, a abstraction of change of law on allusive representation can accord us insights in the alive of law and business in the liberalized-globalised economy. The catechism is not be whether a chump has able remedies and aegis adjoin such arbitrary barter practices of a affiliation but whether the clashing corporations acquire able law adjoin arbitrary barter practices, and a amends commitment arrangement to acquire some ‘rules of the game’ for aggressive amid themselves [1] .

The appellation ‘comparative advertising’ refers to any anatomy of announcement in which a cast buyer attempts to adore pecuniary allowances from a allegory amid his product, service, or cast and that of a competitor. Allusive claims may alter in nature. They may absolutely name a adversary or around accredit to him. They may either accent the similarities or the differences amid the products. They may additionally accompaniment that the advertised artefact is ‘better than’ or ‘as acceptable as’ the competitor’s [2] . In simple words; allusive announcement is a anatomy of announcement in which two or added brands of aforementioned all-encompassing articles are compared in agreement of one or added articles or attributes. These advertisements are advised to highlight the advantages of the appurtenances and casework offered by the advertiser as compared to those of a competitor. Although, allusive advertisement has not been authentic in the Indian statute, the UK Regulations ascertain it as an advertisement which “explicitly or by implication, identifies a adversary or appurtenances or casework offered by a adversary ” [3] .

Comparative Announcement is additionally acclimated in political campaigns, area it generates added counterarguments and beneath antecedent derogations than abrogating political announcement does. This aftereffect may be due to the altered styles of information’ processing that the two types of letters encourage. However, consumers apparent to abrogating political letters acquisition them beneath advantageous for accommodation authoritative and acquire added abrogating attitudes appear political campaigns than do consumers apparent to political advertising. [4] 

A assay of advertisements conducted in US reveals that there are three categories into which all advertisements fall [5] :

1. Non allusive advertisements that do not accredit to a aggressive artefact either anon or indirectly.

2. Alongside allusive advertisements that refers to a aggressive artefact in an aberrant manner.

3.Directly allusive advertisements in which a aggressive artefact is accurately called or acutely presented.

Advertising falling into the aftermost two categories could be referred to as allusive advertising. while in some countries one or both kinds of allusive advertisements are allowed, some countries do not acquiesce either of the two kinds. Accordingly, the able-bodied accustomed tag band in the UK(which allows both forms of allusive announcement with assertive restrictions) in the advertisements for Carlsberg lager-“Probably the best lager in the world”, cannot be acclimated in Germany(which does not acquiesce allusive advertisement at all), as it would advance to an affiliation that all alternative lager are inferior to Carlsberg, thereby falling into the chic of alongside allusive advertisements. [6] 

Comparative announcement about possesses two components, adulation and denigration. Adulation is area the advertiser seeks to draw the consumer’s absorption by authoritative accomplished claims about his artefact that are assertions of opinion, rather than absolute statements of fact. About adulation crosses the banned of altruism and seeks to portray the aggressive artefact in a abrogating light. The aforementioned is again said to bulk to denigration, which the courts acquire carefully prohibited. Thus, the actual catechism that about arises is to what admeasurement allusive announcement may be restricted. The acknowledgment lies in developing a bright compassionate of the adverse interests of the assorted stakeholders involved, including the advertiser, the adversary and the consumer. The advertiser’s cold herein is to present his articles in a address such that the chump is best acceptable to acquirement it. On the alternative duke the adversary would consistently try to anticipate any announcement that aims at abusive his artefact or makes apocryphal claims, or uses his artefact as a accustomed which the advertiser claims to exceed. The hapless chump finds himself in the bosom of a cacophony of claims, and has the appropriate to be accurately abreast about the affection or account of the articles accessible in the market. [7] 


The onus of acclimation announcement in India has been afflicted by a advanced arrangement of authoritative authorities and tribunals, but anon there exists no committed approved apparatus to adapt the broadcasting of corrupt or calumniating actual through such medium [8] . Primarily, affairs accompanying to apocryphal and ambiguous announcement were adjudicated aloft by the Monopolies and Restrictive Barter Practices (‘MRTP’) Commission, constituted beneath the Monopolies and Restrictive Barter Practices Act, 1969 (‘MRTP Act’). The Act authentic an ‘unfair barter practice’ beneath area 36A to accommodate any apocryphal representation of appurtenances with absorption to their quality, abundance or utility. The accouterment additionally congenital the commodity that a assurance or agreement of achievement or backbone of the product, if not abundantly substantiated, would bulk to an arbitrary barter practice [9] . Further, to acquaint a ‘false or ambiguous actuality calumniating the goods, casework or barter of addition person’ too was brought aural the abuttals of the same [10] . However, the MRTP Act was afterwards repealed by advantage of area 66 of the Antagonism Act, 2002.

The Monopolies and Restrictive Barter Practices Commission, with advertence to accumulative antagonism in the post-liberalised India, was anecdotic a case afore it as ‘another acknowledged activity amid two bunch accumulated giants authoritative this Commission as a battlefield for the purpose [11] .

The Barter Marks Act provides that a registered cast is abandoned by any announcement of that barter mark if such announcement takes arbitrary advantage and is adverse to honest practices in automated or bartering matters, is adverse to its characteristic character, or is adjoin the acceptability of the barter mark [12] . Area 30(1) of the aforementioned act provides an barring to the aloft aphorism advertence that such advertisement would not bulk to contravention if the use of such mark avalanche aural abuttals of honest practices’. This implies that honest practices are binding for allusive announcement afterwards which it would bulk to cast infringement

In the absence of an accustomed approved apparatus committed to the adjustment of advertising, the industry itself has approved to advance a archetypal for autonomous self-regulation in the anatomy of the Announcement Standards Council of India (ASCI) [13] . The aforementioned is a non-statutory attorneys absolute an affiliation of advertisers accustomed in 1985. The ASCI position on the anatomy and address of allusive announcement has been laid out in Chapter IV of the body’s Code for Self Adjustment in Advertising [14] . It is declared herein that advertisements absolute comparisons with aggressive manufacturers and sellers are permissible in the interests of active antagonism and chargeless broadcasting of information, accountable to the afterward requirements actuality satisfied:

a) It is bright what aspects of the advertiser’s artefact are actuality compared with what aspects of the competitor’s product.

(b) The accountable amount of allegory is not called in such a way as to advise an bogus advantage aloft the advertiser or so as to advance that a bigger arrangement is offered than is absolutely the case.

(c) The comparisons are factual, authentic and able of substantiation.

(d) There is no likelihood of the chump actuality addled as a aftereffect of the comparison, whether about the artefact advertised or that with which it is compared.

(e) The advertisement does not unfairly denigrate, advance or discredit alternative products, advertisers or advertisements, anon or by implication. [15] 


In an era area the accomplished apple is advised as one all-around village, trademarks comedy an important role to assay the articles of one business abode from another. Cast can be authentic as a mark or attribute which distinguishes one artefact from alternative artefact of agnate nature [16] . Its aim is to assay the antecedent of a artefact and to assay that artefact from artefact of agnate nature. It lends individuality to a artefact which helps the barter to assay the artefact placed with articles of agnate kinds. Barter mark not alone identifies the artefact of its agent but it additionally guaranties its banausic affection and added helps to body a cast angel by advertises the products. In a rat chase to present their articles as the best, companies acquire announcement techniques that accomplish use of trademarks, barter names, and alternative barter symbols accumulation advisory and actuating elements. Not alone has the use of their own cast acquired acceptance additionally the use of their counterpart’s barter mark is fast communicable up. In Announcement and Accessible Interest [17] , Ralph Brown argues that trademarks by themselves were abandoned to the public; the public’s absorption inhered in the adeptness of barter attribute to acquaint and anticipate confusion. He added asserts that the acknowledged aegis surrounding barter mark should be apprenticed by assay of the amount to which announcement itself served accessible interest.

The law on allusive announcement and artefact disparagement, in affiliation to trademarks, in India, is based aloft the law as laid bottomward in Irving’s Yeast Vite Ltd v FA Horse-nail [18] . Area 29(8) of The Trademarks Act, 1999 enunciates situations, back the use of a cast in announcement can aggregate infringement. It says that any announcement which is not in accordance with honest practices; or is adverse to the characteristic character, or to the blemish of the mark, shall be an act basic infringement. At the aforementioned time Area 30 (1) makes allusive announcement an exception, to acts basic contravention beneath Area 29. It provides that any announcement which is in accordance with honest practices, and does not account damage to the characteristic appearance or to the blemish of the cast will be permissible and will not aggregate infringement.


Article 19 (1) (a) of the Constitution of India protects the appropriate to abandon of accent and expression. It is actual important for us to assay commodity 19 (1) (a) of the Constitution in affiliation to allusive advertising. The abandon of accent and announcement additionally has limitations but the aforementioned is belted by arty reasonable restrictions by the accompaniment beneath commodity 19 (2) of the Constitution [19] . Now the catechism is that whether the bartering accent can be able beneath commodity 19 (1) (a) of the Constitution. In the case of “Tata Press Ltd. vs Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd.” [20] , the Supreme Cloister captivated that “commercial accent cannot be denied the aegis of Commodity 19(1) (a) of the Constitution alone because the aforementioned is issued by businessmen”. Cloister took a actual advanced estimation of the Commodity 19(1) (a) of the Constitution Supreme Cloister captivated that announcement as a ‘commercial speech’ has two facets. Announcement which is no added than a bartering transaction is, nonetheless, broadcasting of advice apropos the artefact advertised. Accessible at ample is benefited by the advice fabricated accessible through the advertisement. In a autonomous economy, chargeless breeze of bartering advice is indispensable. There cannot be honest and economical business by the accessible at ample afterwards actuality accomplished by the advice broadcast through advertisements. The bread-and-butter arrangement in a capitalism would be bedridden afterwards there actuality abandon of ‘commercial speech’. Supreme Cloister additionally declared that the accessible at ample has a appropriate to acquire the ‘commercial speech’. Commodity 19(1) (a) not alone guarantees abandon of accent and expression; it additionally protects the rights of an alone to listen, read, and acquire the said speech. So the Supreme Cloister captivated that a affair has a appropriate to acquaint its artefact authoritative acclamation about its quality. Advertisement actuality a bartering accent which is a allotment of the abandon of accent is affirmed beneath commodity 19(1). (a) of the Constitution and it can additionally be belted beneath Commodity 19 (2) if it fulfils its elements.

Court was of the appearance that publicity and advertisement of one’s artefact with purpose of advocacy sales is a accustomed business strategy. Cloister has laid bottomward assorted attempt in chief about the admeasurement of allusive advertisement.

Comparative announcement charge assay articles affair the aforementioned needs or advised for the aforementioned purpose.

Comparative announcement should absolutely or around accomplish bright what allegory is made.

A case of aspersion arises alone if artefact in catechism is identifiable. Allegory with addition or accustomed artefact that does not allude to accurate brand, cannot accord acceleration to disparagement.

For disparagement, a absolute advertence to aggressive cast is not necessary. Alike an aberrant referencing that can assay a accurate cast may advance to a case of disparagement.

Comparative announcement should not mislead consumers about competitor’s artefact with which allegory is made.

A architect is advantaged to accomplish exaggerations like his appurtenances are the best, or in puffing address assay his appurtenances with competitors’, and the aforementioned alike if untrue, will not accord a commodity of activity to alternative manufacturers of agnate product, unless in accomplishing so the architect says that his competitor’s appurtenances are bad, or disparages and asperse them.

This makes bright that abandon of accent and announcement does not admittance aspersion and it would be a little adopted to say that an advertiser has the alternative to abuse the artefact of his adversary afterwards any check, beneath the grab of abandon of speech. The irony remains, that although it is one affair to say that your artefact is bigger than that of a battling and it is addition affair to say that his artefact is inferior to your product, still while asserting the latter, the hidden bulletin may be the former, but that is assured in the case of a comparison. While comparing two products, the advertised artefact will, but naturally, acquire to be apparent as better. [21] 

Comparative Advertising-Consumer’s Perspective

Comparative Announcement if apparent in a chump angle it tells the aberration amid two appurtenances in the bazaar and acquaint the chump why he should opt for the advertisers product. [22] 

One of the best able methods for announcement a artefact is to assay it with aggressive offerings. Side-by-side or “A-B” comparisons can accommodate -to-be barter with acute affidavit to buy from the company. They can additionally advice body believability for its product. Subconsciously, the -to-be chump says: “Who would accident authoritative a absolute allegory if they didn’t acquire article absolutely superior?” Johnson and Johnson begin this out the adamantine way back Proctor and Gamble alien Whisper with a absolute allegory of the assorted appearance that were new in their artefact as adjoin to Carefree afterwards already allotment Carefree directly. [23] 

The allegory of appurtenances and casework provides added advice and appropriately educates consumers in demography a bigger decision. The advertisers in India about assay the prices that baby to the cachet address of the best populations as 30% of Indians alive beneath the chic of average chic which is the best growing chump bazaar and they are additionally benefitted with the allusive advertisements.

From the analysis done in India and away apropos the chump reactions to the allusive advertising, it is bright that it helps in allegorical barter on the allusive appearance of two aggressive brands. It is an able accession apparatus as well. [24] Few advertisers appearance the allusive announcement as abhorrent but from the applied acquaintance so far, it is an accustomed actuality that consumers are actuality benefitted by the allusive advertisements. In Indian market, as mentioned aloft there has been a sea-change afterwards the addition of LPG policies. Brands that were advised to be of actual aerial affection with about no antagonism acquire absent out to alternative all-embracing brands, with the aperture up of our markets and with the accretion acquaintance of the consumers about the products. Allusive advertisement absolutely gives an befalling to advice consumers not alone to adjudge on which artefact is bigger but additionally what is best ill-fitted for him. [25] 

Consumers about do not beam affection afore purchase. Prices cannot arresting quality. The firms attempt for barter by announcement their quality. We aboriginal assay a authentic acknowledgment framework. If a close advertises, it discloses the truth; it cannot adulterate as such. Assay two scenarios. In the aboriginal firms can alone appoint in non-comparative advertising, i.e., a close may acknowledge its own affection but not the competitor’s. In the added scenario, the firms can additionally appoint in allusive advertising. In both scenarios announcement is cher and firms may, therefore, acquire to abide silent. [26] 

Some studies acquire questioned the capability of allusive advertising. Swinyard begin that back it is one-sided, allusive announcement loses believability and generates accord for the cast actuality attacked. [27] A abstraction by Ogilvy-Mather, a ample ad agency, begin that consumers frequently abash the sponsor for the adversary in abounding allusive ads. Furthermore, there was no ability of allusive and non-comparative ads. [28] On the alternative hand, alternative studies acquire begin that if the antecedent is credible, allusive advertisement is effective. For example, Gotlieb and Sarel begin that aboveboard allusive ads were added acceptable to be notices and were added acceptable to access intentions to buy the advertised cast compared with non allusive ads. They additionally begin that aboveboard allusive ads were decidedly able for new products. Swinyard begin that believability can best be accomplished by authoritative allusive ads two sided-that is, a allusive ad that names a competitor, cites some of the advantages of the allusive brand, and again believability out the arguments for the advertised brand. [29] 

Marketers should additionally accede consumer’s ambition back advancing allusive ads. Promotion-focused consumers, whose ambition is to maximise their assets and absolute consumers, will be added acknowledging to claims that Cast X is aloft to Cast Y; prevention-focused consumers, who appetite to abbreviate their accident and risk, will be added sceptical of ahead claims and added acknowledging to claims that Cast X is agnate or agnate to Cast Y. Agenda that absolutely afflicted allusive messages(Brand X performs bigger than Cast Y) are added able for promotion-focused consumers, admitting abnormally afflicted messages(Brand Y has added problems than Cast X) are added able for prevention-focused consumers. Absolutely afflicted allusive letters animate added cerebral processing and alert consumers to accede alternative cast information-sparking their affairs intentions if the added advice supports the absolute arguments. [30] 

But the allusive advertisement should admeasurement to the absolute that it misleads the consumer. Any misinformation will be ageism to the consumers. Abuses in announcement can acutely acquire adverse furnishings on consumers alignment from money on account that did not alive up to the standard, expectation, affection and finer but after-effects in chancy accidents consistent from the bribery of adulterated goods. [31] 

Humour In Advertising [32] 

Marketers use amusing letters because they allure absorption and because advertisers acquire that humour can be persuasive. The use of humour in announcement has been accretion to the point area the majority of ads use humour. one acumen is that a 2002 assay by Roper, a ample business analysis firm, begin that 85 percent of respondents said they like ads with amusing themes.

There are pros and cons for the use of humour in advertising. On the absolute side, humour is acceptable to access absorption and memorability. It is additionally acceptable to enhance the advertiser’s credibility. Humour may actualize a absolute activity appear the advertisers and access the ability of the message. It may additionally abstract consumers who use aggressive articles from developing arguments adjoin the advertiser’s cast and may advance them to acquire the message.

Humour may additionally be advised inappropriate based on the bread-and-butter and political climate. Back is the use of humour best effective? Researchers acquire begin that humour is best able in accepting bulletin acceptance-

when consumers are not involved- because humour is borderline to the message, it is added acceptable to access consumers who are not complex with the artefact than those who are.

for absolute products- announcement new articles crave carrying information. Humour is a added able agency of establishing a affection than of carrying information.

When consumers acquire a absolute attitude appear the brand- humour can reinforce absolute animosity appear a brand, but is absurd to about-face abrogating feelings.

Why Chump Protection? [33] 

Consumer has no articulation in the artefact which is bogus for his consumption.

It is actual difficult to finer adapt consumers in country as all-inclusive as India.

A majority of the citizenry is benighted and ignorant.

Poverty, abridgement of education, abridgement of misinformation, acceptable angle of Indians to ache in silence, because abjection and ache as a god-given things-all these abrogating abandon of our activity acquire enabled arrant agent to accomplishment consumers in India.

The advance of science and technology has added the difficulties of the chump forth with his opportunities of alternative from a actual advanced array of goods.


Indian Judiciary has authentic assertive limitations for allusive advertising. Assertive cases discussed beneath will advice us to analyze added on this term.

The role of adulation as a angle of allusive announcement was substantively dealt with by an Indian cloister for the aboriginal time in Reckitt & Colman of India Ltd. v. M.P. Ramchandran and Anr. [34] In the anxious matter, the plaintiff and actor were manufacturers of accouterment bactericide brands ‘Robin Blue’ and ‘Ujala’, respectively. It was arguable by the plaintiff that the defendant, in its advertisement, had carefully displayed a alembic that was agnate to the one in which the plaintiff’s artefact was sold, and in absorption to which the plaintiff had a registered design. A added allegation to the artefact of the plaintiff was in the apocryphal artefact actuality priced at Rs. 10, which was accustomed to be the amount at which ‘Robin Blue’ was sold. The advertisement went on to accompaniment that the said artefact ‘Blue’ was uneconomical, and depicted that the aforementioned was a artefact of anachronistic technology and appropriately ineffective. There was additionally an affiliation that the artefact bootless to deliquesce finer in water, and appropriately damaged clothes by abrogation dejected patches on them. It was argued by the actor that the canteen depicted in the advertisement did not buck any affinity to ‘Robin Blue’, and that the article of the assuming had been alone to advance the abstruse ahead of ‘Ujala’ over alternative aggressive products. Hence, it was denied that there was any specific aspersion of ‘Robin Blue’ in the anxious advertisement.

In M. Balasundram v Jyothi Laboratories [35] , A television advertisement announcement Ujala aqueous dejected showed that 2-3 drops were able to accompany arresting whiteness of clothes while several spoons of alternative brands were appropriate admitting no characterization of any alternative cast was shown. A adult captivation a canteen of Ujala was attractive bottomward on addition canteen and exclaiming chhi, chhi, chhi! in disgust. The manufacturers of Regaul, a aggressive brand, approached the MRTP Commission that the advertisement was calumniating its goods. The Commission was of the appearance that-“a bald affirmation to ahead in the affection of one’s artefact by itself is not acceptable to allure area 36(1)(x) of MRTP Act”. In the advertisement, the canteen did not backpack any label. Further, the canteen did not acquire affinity with canteen of any brand. The Commission, thus, was of the assessment that it could not be a case of aspersion of goods.

On a altered agenda accommodation accustomed by the cloister in case of Hindustan Lever Limited v Colgate Palmolive (I) Limited [36] and Pepsi Co Inc v Hindustan Coca Cola Ltd [37] , area both Colgate and Hindustan Coca Cola Ltd accountable for calumniating their competitors’ products, respectively. Alike admitting in both advertisements the competitor’s artefact name could not be heard but could acutely be fabricated out from lip movement. Such a adjustment of circumventing the law was captivated to abatement acutely aural the abuttals of disparagement. The courts added declared that any claims fabricated in allusive advertisements charge be backed by absolute statistical data.

Precedents like the one laid bottomward in Dabur India Ltd. v. Emami Ltd [38] . could acutely abbreviate the ambit of allusive advertising. Jurisprudentially speaking, the abstraction of aspersion has to be specific or abundant in nature [39] . In the present case, the courts assume to acquire disregarded this premise, as the court’s cardinal in the case laid bottomward that alike a advertence to a all-encompassing chic of articles could be potentially disparaging. This could be beheld as alarming antecedent as it would abjure a adversary to alike accomplish comparisons on a accepted basis. Hypothetically if the anew launched Tata Nano were to put out an advertisement giving out the consequence that bike owners could ‘progress’ in activity by admission to a car, again based on the arrangement of this case, any bike aggregation would be able to auspiciously sue Tata for disparagement [40] .


In India there’s no agnosticism that the law apropos to allusive announcement is able-bodied settled, but is it acclimatized in the appropriate manner? By abundantly acceptance puffing up in business strategies, until a adversary is not abnormally affected, the courts acquire angry a dark eye appear the appropriately important chump and his interests. Today in the Indian apple the focus alone seems directed appear the avaricious of eyeballs, afterwards accouterment any advantageous advice for the chump to utilize. The cold abaft allusive announcement was not alone actuality advisory and an important apparatus to advance antagonism but for comparisons to serve as benchmarks to advice consumers focus on the product’s capital qualities.


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