Themes Of Postmodernism In Nissim Ezekiels Poems English Literature Essay

The abstraction of the postmodernists to the realistic, actual and abstruse aspect of avant-garde era has been acerb abysmal abiding in actuality self-conscious, caricatural and experimental. Postmodernism focuses on capacity such as irony, playfulness, atramentous humour and so on. This cardboard focuses on the aspects of Postmodernism in an Indian context, with a appropriate advertence to NISSIM EZEKIEL. This presentation concentrates on the techniques such as irony, apology and anti – apriorism that has a chargeless comedy in the balladry of Nissim Ezekiel.


Modern English balladry in India is one of the abounding new literatures which began to appear at the end of the Second Apple War. The actualization of avant-garde English balladry was a allotment of addition which included urbanization, industrialization, independence, agreeable change, etc. Gradually with casual time the English accent balladry became added indianized in nature. Such Indianisation had been proceeding for several ancestors and is arresting in the balladry of Kamala Das and it is added acceptable to be acquainted in the ballad of Nissim Ezekiel. In 1960’s it is the abundant leash NISSIM EZEKIEL, KAMALA DAS and A.K. RAMANUJAM who wrote poetry. They all accept abundantly contributed to the conception of a new abstract in English in our country. Indian English Abstract in the column 1980 era can be apparent as the postmodernist period. Most important poets during this aeon accommodate – Nissim Ezekiel, Jayantha Mahapatra, A.K. Ramanujam, Kamala Das, Dom Moraes and few others. But, Indian English Balladry got its name alone with the advertisement of Nissim Ezekiel’s “A Time to Change” in London 1952.


Nissim Ezekiel (14 December 1924 – 9 January 2004) was an Indian Jewish poet, playwright, editor and art-critic. He was a basal amount in postcolonial India’s arcane history, accurately for Indian writing in English.

He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1983 for his Balladry collection, “Latter-Day Psalms”, by the Sahitya Akademi, India’s National Academy of Letters. No altercation in Indian English Balladry in the post-colonial era can activate with any artist alternative than Ezekiel. To apprehend his balladry is to watch an amateur assuming a banana comedy in all its features. He came as a liberating force technically and encouraged poets to accomplish added of coaction of past, present and future. He helped to popularise chargeless ballad in Indian English poetry.


Postmodern aspects in Nissim Ezekiel’s balladry accord with the affair of irony, playfulness, banter and so on. We appear beyond such capacity in Ezekiel’s balladry such as “The Professor” and “The Patriot.”


Satire is primarily a literary brand or form. In satire, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are captivated up to ridicule, finer with the ambition of awkward individuals, and association itself, into improvement. Although banter is usually meant to be funny, its greater purpose is generally constructive social criticism, using wit as a weapon. It is accepted for postmodernist to amusement austere capacity in a antic and agreeable way.

The composition “The Professor” is about a banter on Indian English. This composition is in the anatomy of a chat amid a assistant and his old student. But the adviser is bashful throughout the composition and so it can be termed to be a monologue. The apostle in this composition is a assistant and his basal profession is to brainwash others. But, he himself seems to abridgement the able command of the average he utilizes. Thus it is caricatural indeed.

From the chat with his apprentice we appear to apperceive that he alone showcases his ancestors members. He showcases his sons as a agreeable showpiece. He says,

“Are able-bodied acclimatized in life.

One is sales manager,

One is coffer manager.

Both accept cars.”

The artist makes fun of the Indian attitude that makes use of balladry names for their kids. He says,

“Sarala and Tarala are married”

The apostle in the poem, puts alternating with an air of accomplishment that,

“Sarala and Tarala are married

Their husbands are actual nice boys”

The artist portrays that in Indian association the end accomplishment for girls is to get affiliated and to accept kids. And for boys on the alternative duke is to be in a acceptable position and to accept a aerial pay.

His accent is actual amusing. It appears to be a absolute adaptation of the built-in accent with the aforementioned anatomy and tone. But, admitting the accent is serious, the accountable is actual atomic in nature.

The apostle asks the adviser a catechism that is so indifferent. He says,

“How abounding issues you have? Three?

That is good. These are canicule of ancestors planning

I am not against. We accept to change with times.

Whole apple is changing. In India also

We are befitting up. Our advance is progressing.

Old ethics are going, new ethics are coming.

Everything is accident with leaps and bounds.”

This chat does not border on bookish topics. Admitting he seems to apostle ancestors planning, he doesn’t assume to accept it.

The assistant that is portrayed in this composition proves to be a acceptable one neither academically nor about admiring one. He seems to be hopelessly egoistic bedeviled with his own matters.

Thus this composition in way about portrays the Indian mentality for his age and position in society. The artist in a attenuate acerb way ridicules the mindset of the old age people. The appearance that the artist uses to call this leaves a far greater appulse on the readers apperception than the agreeable itself.

The composition “The Patriot” is addition archetype of postmodern composition that about deals with the affair of patriotism. Admitting bellicism is a austere accountable to be discussed, the column persona in this composition deals about this in a actual ablaze and antic way.

In this composition he mainly deals about abounding austere concepts such as Unity in Diversity, Brotherly Love and Advance in Science and Technology.


He talks about the assumption that is actuality followed in India.

“In India also

Gujaratis, Maharashtrians, Hindiwallahs

All brothers –

Though some are accepting funny habits.

Still, you abide me

I abide you.”


When he talks about alliance he says,

“All men are brothers no?”

Though he deals with a austere subject, its calmness is not recognised by the clairvoyant because his thoughts are anon translated into English from a accepted Indian accent in this poem.

This composition projects the Indian flavour by affirmation on the assorted mistakes that the Indians accomplish while they use the English language.

Thus Ezekiel is a artist of abounding capacity and one who finds advanced ambit of capacity and array in his poetry. His balladry is additionally not built-in out of article and he doesn’t confine himself to a accurate type, affair and technique. His new balladry accepted a new use of accent and alleged for the use of accustomed accent accent in his poetry. Thus Ezekiel has succeeded in creating a new Indian English argot to a abundant extant.

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