Treatment of the Kurdish Population by the Iraqi Regime

Factors Explaining the Analysis of the Kurdish Citizenry by the Iraqi Administration beneath Saddam Hussein


The ambition of the altercation is to ascertain the arch factor(s) of Saddam Hussein and his Ba’athist party’s barbarous analysis of Iraqi Kurds. Argued by abounding to be a case of attempted genocide, the primary instance the altercation will appraise is the Iraqi Anfal Campaign, which took abode amid 1986 and 1989. Aims of the altercation will be to 1) authorize the provocations that culminated in the attempted genocide of the Iraqi Kurds behindhand of the bulk of Kurdish culpability, 2) abode the genocide in a beyond actual context, and 3) appraise the centralized and alien political ambience in which the genocide occurred. Accessory objectives to be met in the altercation will be the allegory of the Iraqi Kurdish tragedy to those of alternative minorities in the post-colonial Middle East, as able-bodied as the twinning of the ambience in which Kurds were massacred in Iraq with the contexts in which alternative minorities were treated. Groups included in the accessory assay will be Kurds in Turkey as able-bodied as Armenians in Turkey and Azerbaijan. The tertiary and final cold of the altercation will be the assay of the analysis of alternative minorities in adverse to that of the Kurds, including Kurds in Iran as able-bodied as Armenian expatriates in Iran.

From a religious standpoint, an cutting majority of the Kurds allotment a adoration and history in accepted with the Arab Iraqi Sunni. Kurds, Kurdish culture, and Kurdish actual abstracts are chip into the Sunni Arab conscience, credible by the admiration of the allegorical warrior Salah Al-Din (Saladin) as able-bodied as Hussein’s own broadly accounted affirmation to be the latest apotheosis of said figure. It is assured appropriately that the abuse and accumulation annihilation of the Kurds was not due to a religious difference, but rather a political and theocratic acumen that afar the Kurds from their Sunni Arab compatriots in a time back altercation was promptly and berserk put down. Texts evaluating the ambience of the Kurdish murders will be Viva Bartkus’ The Dynamic of Secession and Robert Gellately’s The Specter of Genocide: Accumulation Annihilation in Actual Perspective. Evaluations of the Iraqi political altitude above-mentioned to and anon afterward the 1991 Gulf War will accredit to Robert Freedman’s The Middle East Afterwards Iraq’s Invasion of Kuwait, while affidavit of the murders as a genocide over a bald abatement of an insurgence will be provided by Samuel Totten’s Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. By analytic and compartmentalizing the altercation into three audible parts, aliment of a accurate calendar of advance becomes simpler. Moreover, abstracts compilation, comparison, and appraisal is fabricated simpler back done in small, focused spurts as adjoin to a countless of capacity and ideas. The intricacies of the backroom complex in the Anfal Campaign accreditation a multi-dimensional, non-partisan assay of the attempted genocide. Bald adjournment of the atrociousness as an act by a mindless, barbarous autocrat brings no acumen to the event; as a corollary, flesh can accomplish no advance afterwards a assured cause of the brutality.


The best accustomed strengths credible are in abstracts clarification and acquisition. There is able arrangement in the arrangement of sources, all of which accord to the assorted vantages of the dissertation. A accurate backbone that was fabricated of use was the adeptness to abstracted media accounts from bookish logs. With the bulk of media bent so prevalently accustomed in Europe and America (polarized both in favor of and adjoin the advancing American activity of Iraq), cold sources are difficult to identify. Immediate weaknesses accommodate the disability to initially butt the political motives and framework aural which the Anfal Campaign of 1986-1989 was executed. Unlike multi-ethnic states such as the above Yugoslavia in which ethnicity and adoration contributed to a beyond problem, the Iraqi bewilderment of civic accord and the factors accidental to the abuse of the Kurds including bunco amid religious leaders central Iraq and all-embracing rivals of the civil Ba’athist regime. Bartkus writes that accomplished Kurdish leaders were adjourned by “the absolutist of Iran, Mossad, and the CIA” who “provided accoutrements and advisers” in affairs of alienation and accepted rebellion[1].

Following the debilitating Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s, “the Kurds attempted to use opportunity” to “gain ascendancy over their own territory”[2]. According to Bartkus, Hussein launched the ancestry of the Anfal Campaign, “razing some 5,000 Kurdish villages [in] response” to the uprising, inicluding “the 1988 actinic weapons advance on the Kurdish boondocks of Halabja” that “killed over 5,000 bodies and affected several hundred thousand to seek ambush in turkey or Iran”[3]. According to Bartkus, several Iraqi Kurdish “pashmergas attempted to deliver Kurdish towns in March 1991, anon afterwards Iraq’s defeat in the Gulf War,” appropriately afresh base Iraqi aggressive abrasion to bolster the altercation that Kurdish alienation and Iraqi repression is an advancing battle (Ibid). The Kurdish abuse at the easily of Hussein’s administration accept added in accepted with the plight of the Armenians at the about-face of the Great War (WWI), area aloft the landing of European armament at “Gallipoli, Turkish authorities began a action of repression of centralized communities—Armenian communities, calculation conceivably 2 million” throughout the Ottoman Empire[4].

The altercation has several similarities to alternative assignments undertaken, decidedly in the alignment of the cardboard and its focus about a declared set of arguments and the addition of said arguments throughout the paper. The basal blueprint of block commendation and argumentation is applicative and accurately active in the extrapolation of theories accepted and after proven. Area the aboriginal altercation angle basic several appropriate concepts including religious and political postulations, it did not abnegate the claims in a compare-and-contrast adjustment of research. This analysis plan includes rebuttals of accepted notions apropos the Kurdish oppressions as able-bodied as abutment of added capricious conclusions. For example, while the abuse of Kurds is affiliated to indigenous differences, there was no conception of the altercation that such rebellions were accepted in the Middle East, abnormally beneath the Ottoman and after Turkish governments, who, as above rulers of modern-day Iraq, faced problems with Kurds throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Mainstream schools of anticipation such as Freeman’s accumulating of essays accept amorphous to point out the attempt of abundantly pro-Islamist Kurds adjoin imposed Ba’athist secularism, a balance from the canicule of the Pan-Arab Nationalist movement of the 1960s vis-à-vis Hafiz al-Assad’s “brutal abolishment of the Muslim Brothers in 1983”[5].


While all abstracts has been calm and accurate for the primary, secondary, and tertiary objectives, the abutting footfall in the dissertation’s achievement that warrants advance is the alignment of specific arguments in such a way as to associate all objectives in a analytic manner. The abuse of Kurds is a multi-faceted topic, as are the alongside contest including Kurdish abuse alfresco Iraq in Turkey, Syria, and to an admeasurement adjoining Iran. Added difficult a alternation is the recently-contested cachet of the Armenian Genocide of 1914. The Armenian-Turkish and Kurdish-Iraqi oppressions allotment abundant in accepted that they could accreditation the conception of an absolutely abstracted dissertation. A growing botheration in the affiliation of the Armenian Genocide is chief which facts to include. Aspects of Armenian abuse in the Ottoman Authority and Turkish government can be acclimated to both alongside and adverse the Kurdish-Iraqi conflict. Furthermore, the actuality of both Armenian and Kurdish chip populations into Iran begs the catechism of the appliance of alien Kurdish acreage disputes. Historic Kurdistan would cut into several states alfresco Iraq, warranting the authority of advertence the history of Kurdish secessionism in the region.

In befitting focused and on-topic, several key credibility accept been removed from the aboriginal introduction. First, the alienation in Islamic canon amid Sunni and Shi’a is bare from the latest draft. While it is an important angle of centralized Iraqi politics, the blemish of the Sunni-Shi’a citizenry accidental has annihilation to do with Kurdish accumulation murders unless it is mentioned in the ambience of Iraqi civic unity. Before 1940, modern-day Iraq never existed. The Ottomans afar Iraq into cantons, including but not bound to the modern-day ambit absolute Iraq today. No distinct indigenous accumulation absolute Iraq today has anytime advance a unified Iraq; Saladin chip the “Land of the Two Rivers” into an authority spanning Egypt, Syria, Israel, and Palestine, while the Ottomans assigned abstracted governors to Shi’a-dominant, Sunni-dominant, and Kurdish-dominant regions.

The blemish of Iraqi accord is the alone acumen one ability acknowledgment the altered Islamic theologies, and akin again it would accreditation alone a casual thought. A added pertinent focus would be on the cartoon of post-colonial borders and its aftereffect on nationalism. If Islamist schools of government are a call to mention, it should be intimated that Kurds are abundantly pro-theocracy and anti-secularism, while Iraq’s Arab Muslims populations are broken amid theocracy (Shi’a and Sunni alike) and the acquaintance of the Pan-Arab Nationalist Ba’ath Party. An added afterlight has been the addition of Iran as a above contrarian affair to Iraq in its analysis of Kurds, admitting its actuality ethnically altered from Kurds as able-bodied as religiously adverse the Sunnis as the world’s alone absolute Shiite theocracy.


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Totten, Samuel. (2004) Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. New York: Routledge P.


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[1] Bartkus 1999, p. 65

[2] Ibid

[3] Ibid

[4] Gellately and Kiernan 2003, p. 207

[5] Freedman 1993, p. 279

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